31.10.2014 - 21:05
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Genetic Diversity and Selection (Aida Andrés)

Our main interest is to understand the influence that natural selection has played in the evolution of humans and other primates. We are intrigued by how adaptation has shaped the evolution of relevant phenotypes. How has natural selection influenced the acquisition of species-specific traits? What selective forces are responsible for phenotypic diversity within populations? How does past selection affect our present-day phenotypes?

At present, we are actively working on two main research areas:

Comparative population genomics:

Considerable knowledge has accumulated on the influence of natural selection in specific human populations. Still, little is known about the conservation of such selective pressures, both among human populations and across different species. Loci under similar selective pressures are likely affected by common environmental factors and are behind shared phenotypes; loci under species- or population-specific selection are likely affected by local selective forces and are responsible for differential traits. Through a number of genomic approaches we aim at helping establish the level of conservation of different types of natural selection, and at identifying loci that are responsible for species- and population-specific traits.

Balancing selection:

Balancing selection maintains advantageous diversity in populations by a variety of mechanisms. In humans it is responsible, for example, for the extreme levels of genetic diversity of the MHC locus, and for the fascinating equilibrium that maintains sickle-cell anemia alleles in malaria-suffering populations due to heterozygotes advantage. In other species, balancing selection maintains diversity that is crucial for sex determination, self-incompatibility, defense against pathogens, or escape from predators. Our goal is to understand the influence of balancing selection in the genome (its prevalence, conservation among populations and species, its most common targets) and to unravel the biological factors behind its signatures (its specific targets, the functional consequences of selected variants, their contribution to phenotypic diversity in populations). For this, we combine genomic approaches with detailed population genetics, computational, and experimental studies, that allow us to go from the genome to the phenotype.