The diets of Neanderthals remain highly debated, and several different analytical methods have been used to study their food related behaviors. However, results from these different methods rarely overlap, since different regions and subjects are studied. Furthermore, most of the ecological dietary studies have been carried out on specimens drawn from different time periods and regions, almost exclusively those characterized by cold, open environmental conditions. Subsistence models based on these fragmentary data have been applied to Neanderthals living in a variety of different regions and environments, even though their dietary strategies may have been as variable as regions they inhabited. In this paper we integrate different dietary approaches (studies of the zooarchaeology, stable isotopes and plant remains) from the central and southeastern Mediterranean coast of Iberia in order to develop a broader and more complex picture of Neanderthal diet in different Mediterranean environmental conditions. Our results suggest that there may have been some minor dietary variation due to climatic or environmental differences, but that Neanderthal diet focused on large terrestrial game, supplemented by plant foods when these were available .
Salazar-García DC, Power RC, Sanchís AS, Villaverde V, Walker MJ, Henry AG (in press). Integrating new Neanderthal dietary evidence from southeastern coastal Iberia. Quaternary International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.06.007