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Department of Primatology

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig

phone: +49 (341) 3550 - 200
fax: +49 (341) 3550 - 299


Journal Articles & Book Chapters


Fruth B., Bondjengo Ikombe N., Kitengie Matshimba G., Metzger S., Musuyu Muganza D., Mundry R. & A. Fowler. In press. New evidence for self-medication in bonobos: Manniophyton fulvum leaf- & stemstrip-swallowing from LuiKotale, Salonga National Park, DR Congo. American Journal of Primatology.

Liebs V., Bikandu B., Lassa L., Lukoki F., Schareika N. & B. Fruth. In press. Signifying competence: Urban herbalists seeking affirmation in Kinshasa In: Obrist B., Macamo E., Arlt V., eds. Living the City. Zürich: Lit Verlag.

Beaune D., Bretagnolle F., Bollache L., Bourson C., Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2013. Ecological services performed by the bonobo (Pan paniscus): seed dispersal effectiveness in tropical forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 29(5): 367-380. [pdf]

Fruth B., Williamson E.A. & M. Richardson. 2013. Bonobo Pan paniscus. In: Handbook of the Mammals of the World; Volume 3: Primates. R.A. Mittermeier & D.E. Wilson (eds.). Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain. pp. 853-854.

Beaune D., Bretagnolle F., Bollache L., Hohmann G., Surbeck M., Bourson C. & B. Fruth. 2013. The Bonobo-Dialium Positive Interactions: Seed Dispersal Mutualism. American Journal of Primatology 75(4):394-403. [pdf]

Beaune D., Bollache L., Muganza M.D., Bretagnolle F., Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2013. Artificial Germination Activation of Dialium corbisieri by Imitation of Ecological Process. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 32(6):565-575. [pdf]

Beaune D., Bretagnolle F., Bollache L., Hohmann G., Surbeck M. & B. Fruth. 2013. Seed dispersal strategies and the threat of defaunation in a Congo forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 225-238. [pdf]



Beaune D., Bollache L., Fruth B. & F. Bretagnolle. 2012. Bush pig (Potamochoerus porcus) seed predation of bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) and other plant species in Democratic Republic of Congo. African Journal of Ecology 50:509-512. [pdf]

Beaune D., Bollache L., Bretagnolle F. & B. Fruth. 2012. Dung beetles are critical in preventing post-dispersal seed removal by rodents in Congo rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28:507-510. [pdf]

Fruth B. 2012. La Convention sur la Diversité Biologique en République démocratique du Congo : Mise en oeuvre du projet «La Cuvette Centrale comme réservoir de plantes médicinales». Ethnopharmacologia 48: 27-37. [pdf]

Muganza D.M., Fruth B., Lami J.N., Mesia G.K., Kambu O.K., Tona G.L., Kanyanga R.C., Cos P., Maes L., Apers S. & L. Pieters. 2012. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of 33 ethonopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141(1):301-308. [pdf]

Laurance W.F., Carolina Useche D., Rendeiro J., Kalka M., Bradshaw C.J.A., Sloan S.P., Laurance S.G., Campbell M., Abernethy K., Alvarez P. et al. 2012. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489(7415): 290-294. [pdf]



Fruth B. 2011. Die CBD in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo: Das Projekt „Die Cuvette Centrale als Heilpflanzenreservoir“ im Umsetzungsprozess. In: Das Übereinkommen über die Biologische Vielfalt (CBD) – ein Einstieg für Wissenschaftler; ed. Paulsch A. & C. Paulsch; Ibn Schriftenreihe Band 01: 134-146. [pdf]

Fruth, B., Mato, B., Lukoki, F., J.Lejoly & M. Muganza. 2011. Care for health and body: An ethnobotanical approach to Nkundo plant use (Cuvette Centrale, DRC) with focus on the significance of indigenous knowledge for the human skin. Curare 34(4):261-281. [pdf]

Fruth. B. 2011. The CBD in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): The project "The Cuvette Centrale as a reservoir of medicinal plants” in the process of implementation. Curare 34(1+2): 51-62. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2011. Is blood thicker than water? In: Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field; ed. M.M Robbins & Ch. Boesch. University of California Press, USA. p 61-76. [pdf]

Oelze V.M., Fuller B., Fruth B., Surbeck M., Hublin JJ., Richards M.P. & G. Hohmann.. 2011. Exploring the contribution and significance of animal protein in the diet of bonobos by stable isotope ratio analysis of hair. PNAS 108(24): 9792-7. [pdf]



Fruth B., Mato B. & M. Muganza. 2010.  Nkundo plant use (Cuvette Centrale, DRC) with a focus on indigenous knowledge and the application of aphrodisiacs. In: Building bridges between anthropology, medicine and Human ethology. Eds: Brüne M., Salter F. and W.C. McGrew. Bochum: The University Press: 211-226. [pdf]



Fruth, B. 2008. D.R. Kongo: Erhaltung der Pflanzendiversität – Das Wissen der Alten. Afrika-Post 3: 16-21. [pdf]

Fruth, B. 2008. Schützenswerte Artenvielfalt Regenwald. Fächerblatt (Mitarbeiterzeitung der Unternehmensgruppe Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Thema: Forschung & Verantwortung) Nr.1: 7.

Fruth, B., Benishay, J.M., Bila-Isia, I., Coxe, S., Dupain, J., Furuichi, T., Hart, J., Hart, T., Hashimoto, C., Hohmann, G., Hurley, M., Ilambu, O., Mulavwa, M., Ndunda, M., Omasombo, V., Reinartz, G., Scherlis, J., Steel, L. & Thompson, J. 2008. Pan paniscus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Version 2012.2. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15932/0>. Downloaded on 03 December 2012.

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2008. Records on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, DRC. Folia primatologica 79, 103-110. [pdf]

Mohneke M. & B. Fruth. 2008. Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Density Estimation in the SW-Salonga National Park, DRC: Common Methodology Revisited. In: The bonobos: behavior, ecology, and conservation, ed. Furuichi T & J. Thompson; Springer. Pp. 151-166. [pdf]



McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Beuerlein MM, Vrancken D., Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 2007. Prospects for bonobo insectivory: Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology: 28(6). Pgs: 1237-1252 [pdf]



D’Amour, D.E., Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2006. Evidence of leopard predation on bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica 77(3): 212-217. [pdf]

Fruth B. & M. Muganza. 2006. Traditional Use of Wild Rainforest Plants by the Nkundo, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Proceedings of the IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB 2005): 471-473. [pdf]

Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 2006. Social grease for females? Same-sex genital contacts in wild bonobos In: Homosexual Behaviour in Animals, ed. P. Vasey & V. Sommer; Oxford University Press. Pp. 294-315. [pdf]

Fruth, B.I., Hohmann, G., Beuerlein, M.M. & W.C. McGrew. 2006. Grooming hand clasp by bonobos of Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pan Africa News 13(1): 6-8 [pdf]



Boubli JP, Eriksson J., Wich S., Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2004. Mesoscale transect sampling of trees in the Lomako–Yekokora interfluvium Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 2399-2417. [pdf]



Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2003. Lui Kotal - A new site for field research on bonobos in the Salonga National Park. Pan Africa News 10(2): 25-27. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2003. Intra- and inter-sexual aggression by bonobos in the context of mating. Behaviour, 140 (11-12):1389 – 1413. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2003: Culture in bonobos? Inter-specific similarities and intra-specific variation in behaviour. Current Anthropology, 44(4): 563-571 [pdf]



Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 2002. How bonobos handle hunts and harvests: Why share food? In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann & L.F. Marchant; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 231-276. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2002. Dynamics in social organization of bonobos (Pan paniscus). In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann & L.F. Marchant; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 138-150. [pdf]



Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2000. Use and proximate function of genital contacts among female bonobos (Pan paniscus). Animal Behaviour 60: 107-120. [pdf]



Fruth, B., Hohmann, G. 1999. Frauenzirkel auf Erfolgskurs. Max Planck Forschung 1: 14-23. [pdf]

Fruth, B., Hohmann, G. & W.C. McGrew. 1999. The Pan Species, in: The Nonhuman Primates, eds. P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes; Mayfield Publishing Company. Pp. 64-72. [pdf]

Gagneux P., Wills C., Gerloff U., Tautz D., Morin P., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ryder O., & D. Woodruff. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 (9): 5077-5082. [pdf]

Gerloff U., Hartung B., Fruth B., Hohmann G., & D. Tautz. 1999. Intra-community relationships, dispersal pattern and control of paternity in a wild living community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analyses of faecal samples. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 266: 1189-1195. [pdf]

Hohmann G., Gerloff U., Tautz D. & B. Fruth. 1999. Social bonds and genetic ties: kinship, association and affiliation in a community of bonobos (Pan paniscus), Behaviour 136 (9): 1219-1235. [pdf]



Fruth B. & W.C. McGrew. 1998. Resting and Nesting in Primates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity. American Journal of Primatology 46: 3-5.

Fruth B. 1998: Invited comment on "The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: Empirical evidence and shifting assumptions" by Craig B. Stanford. Current Anthropology 39: 408-409. [pdf]

McGrew W.C. & B. Fruth (editors). 1998. Nesting and Resting in Primates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity; Wiley-Liss.



Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 1996. Nest Building in the Great Apes: The Great Leap Foreward? in: Great Ape Societies. ed. W.C. McGrew, L. Marchant and T. Nishida. Cambridge University Press, NY. Pp. 225-240. [pdf]

Fruth B. & W.C. McGrew. 1996. Invited comment on "Meat Eating, Sociality and Home Bases" by Rose, L. & F. Marshall. Current Anthropology, 37, 324-325. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 1996. Food sharing and status in unprovisioned bonobos (Pan paniscus): preliminary results. in: Food and The Status Quest.ed. P. Wiessner and W. Schiefenhövel. Harvard: Marion Berghahn Press. Pp. 47-67. [pdf]



Berle A., Fruth B. & L. Van Elsacker. 1995. Nestbuilding behavior in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Primate Report 42: 43-45.

Fruth B. 1995. Nests and Nest Groups in Wild Bonobos (Panpaniscus): Ecological and Behavioural Correlates. Aachen: Shaker Verlag. 187 pp. [pdf]

Fruth B., Hohmann G. 1995. Nahrungsteilung bei freilebenden Bonobos (Pan paniscus). Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft: 177-180 [pdf]

Gerloff U., Schlöttere, C., Rassmann K., Rambold I., Hohmann G., Fruth, B. & D. Tautz. 1995. Amplification of hypervariable simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) from excremental DNA of wild living bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology 4: 515-518. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 1995. Loud calls in great apes: Sex-differences and social correlates. In: Current Topics In Primate Vocal Communication. ed. Zimmermann E., Newman J. & U. Jürgens. Plenum Press. London. Pp. 161-184. [pdf]

Marchesi P., Marchesi N., Fruth B. & C. Boesch. 1995. Census and distribution of chimpanzees in Côte d'Ivoire. Primates 36: 591-607. [pdf]



Boesch C., Marchesi P., Marchesi N., Fruth B. & F. Joulian. 1994. Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behaviour? Journal of Human Evolution 26: 325-338. [pdf]

Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 1994. Comparative analyses of nest building behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). in: Chimpanzee Cultures. ed. R.W. Wrangham, W.C. McGrew, F.B.M. de Waal & P.G.Heltne; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Pp. 109-128. [pdf]

Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 1994. Nests: living artefacts of recent apes? Current Anthropology 35: 310-311. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 1994. Structure and use of distance calls in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). International Journal of Primatology 15: 767-782. [pdf]


Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 1993. Ecological and behavioural aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology 94: 113-126. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 1993. Field observations on meat sharing among bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica, 60: 225-229. [pdf]