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Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Ziegler, T.E. & Wittig, R.M. (2014) Endogenous peripheral oxytocin measures can give insight into the dynamics of social relationships: a review. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 8:68

Fahy, G.E., Richards, M., Deschner, T., Fuller, B. Hublin, J.-J. and Boesch, C., (2014), Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidates weaning patterns in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Am. J. Phys. Anthropology DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22464

Langergraber, K.E., Rowney, C., Schubert, G., Crockford, C., Hobaiter, C., Wittig, R., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbühler, K. & Vigilant, L. (2014) How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. Journal of Human Evolution 69:1-7

Langergraber, K.E., Rowney, C., Crockford, C., Wittig, R.M., Zuberbühler, K. & Vigilant, L. (2014) Genetic analyses suggest no immigration of adult females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology

Luncz L & Boesch C (2014) Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females. American Journal of Primatology/ajp.22259

Oelze V.M., Head J.S., Robbins M.M., Richards M., Boesch C. (2014): Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 66, pp. 95-106.

Samuni L, Mundry R, Terkel J, Zuberbühler K, Hobaiter C. (2014). Socially learned habituation to human observers in wild chimpanzees: Animal Cognition

Wittig, R.M., Crockford, C., Langergraber, K.E. & Zuberbühler, K. (2014) Triadic social interactions operate across time: a field experiment with wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 281:20133155

Wittig, R.M., Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Langergraber, Kevin E., Ziegler, Toni E., Zuberbühler, K. 2014 Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of Royal Society, 281, 20133096


Blasse, A., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Goffe, A. S., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Mother-Offspring Transmission and Age-Dependent Accumulation of Simian Foamy Virus in Wild Chimpanzees. Journal of Virology, 87(9), 5193-9204. doi:10.1128/JVI.02743-12.

Boesch, C. (2013). Ecology and cognition of tool use in chimpanzees. In C. M. Sanz, J. Call, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology (pp. 21-47). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Kutzner, N., Kühl, H., Boesch, C., Kappeler, P. M., Metzger, S., Schubert, G., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology, 22(4), 915-924. doi:10.1111/mec.12183.

Coscolla, M., Lewin, A., Metzger, S. , Maetz-Rennsing, K., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Nitsche, A., Wojtek Dabrowski, P., Radonic, A., Niemann, S., Parkhill, J., Couacy-Hymann, E., Feldman, J., Comas, I., Boesch, C., Gagneux, S. and Leendertz, F.H. 2013. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, No. 6, June 2013.

Crockford, C., Wittig, R.M., Langergraber, K., Ziegler, T.E., Zuberbühler, K. & Deschner, T. (2013). Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B.

De Nys, H. M., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Thiesen, U., Boesch, C., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Age-related effects on malaria parasite infection in wild chimpanzees. Biology Letters, 9(4): 20121160. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1160.

Fahy G.E., Richards M., Riedel J., Hublin J.J. and Boesch C. (2013). Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110(15): 5829-5833.

Head, J., Boesch, C., Robbins, M.M., Rabanal, L., Makaga, L., Kühl, H. 2013 Effective sociodemographic population assessment of elusive species in ecology and conservation management. Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1002/ece3.670

Hicks, C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. J. (2013). Impact of Humans on Long-Distance Communication Behaviour of Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Folia primatologica, 84(3-5), 135-156. doi:10.1159/000350650.

Janmaat, KRL, Ban, SD & Boesch, C (2013). Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes. Animal Cognition, DOI 10.1007/s10071-013-0617-z.

Langergraber, K. E., Mitani, J. C., Watts, D. P., & Vigilant, L. (2013). Male–female socio-spatial relationships and reproduction in wild chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(6), 861-873. doi:10.1007/s00265-013-1509-6.

Murthy, S., Couacy-Hymann, E., Metzger, S., Nowak, K., De Nys, H., Boesch, C., Wittig, R.M., Jarvis, M.A., Leendertz, F.H. & Ehlers, B. (2013) Absence of frequent Herpesvirus transmission in non-human primate predator – prey system in the wild. Journal of Virology 87:10651-10659.

Polansky, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Long-term Changes in Fruit Phenology in a West African Lowland Tropical Rain Forest are Not Explained by Rainfall. Biotropica, 45(4), 434-440. doi:10.1111/btp.12033.

Prüfer, K., Langergraber, K. E., Pääbo, S., & Vigilant, L. (2013). Reply to Gibb and Hills: Divergence times, generation lengths and mutation rates in great apes and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(8): E612. doi:10.1073/pnas.1222027110.

Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Menschenaffen: Begegnung mit unseren nächsten Verwandten. Stuttgart: Hirzel.

Sanz, C. M., Call, J., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

Wittiger, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Female gregariousness in Western Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is influenced by resource aggregation and the number of females in estrus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(7), 1097-1111. doi:10.1007/s00265-013-1534-5.


Adlhoch, C. Kaiser, M., Loewa, A., Ulrich, M., Forbrig, C., Adjogoua, E.V., Akoua-Koffi, C. Couacy-Hymann, E., Leendertz, S.A., Rietschel, W., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Schneider, B.S., Leendertz, F.H. 2012. Diversity of Parvovirus 4-like Viruses in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Monkeys in Hunter-Prey Relationships. Emerging Infectious Diseases  Vol. 18, No. 5, May 2012

Boesch, C. 2012. From material to symbolic cultures: Culture in primates. In: Valsiner, J. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boesch, C. 2012. The ecology and evolution of social behavior and cognition in primates. In Vonk, J. and Shackelford, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crockford, C., Wittig, R.M., Mundry, R., Zuberbuehler, K. (2012). Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger. Current Biology 22: 142-146.

Hicks, T. C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. (2012). Reactions of Bili-Uele Chimpanzees to Humans in Relation to Their Distance From Roads and Villages. American Journal of Primatology, 74(8), 721-733. doi:10.1002/ajp.22023.

Kühl, S.H., N´Guessan, A., Riedel, J., Metzger, S., Deschner, T. 2012 The Effect of Climate Fluctuation on Chimpanzee Birth Sex Ratio. Plos One, 04/2012 Vol 7 Issue 4, e35610

Langergraber, K., Pruefer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J., Muller, M.N., Robbins, M.M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T.S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbuehler, K., Pääbo, S., Vigilant, L. 2012 Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. PNASAugust 13, 2012 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1211740109

Luncz, L. V., Mundry, R., Boesch, C. 2012 Evidence for Cultural Differences between Neighboring Chimpanzee Communities. Current Biology 22, 1–5, May 22, 2012 - DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.031

Neubauer, S., Gunz, P., Schwarz, U., Hublin, J.-J. and C. Boesch (2012) Endocranial volumes in an ontogenetic sample of chimpanzees from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast. /American Journal of Physical Anthropology/. 147(2):319-325.

N´Goran, P. K., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., N´Goran, E.K., Herbinger, I., Yapi, F.A., Kühl, H.S. 2012 Hunting, Law Enforcement, and African Primate Conservation. Conservation Biology  DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01821.x

Scally, A., Dutheil, J. Y., Hillier, L. W., Jordan, G. E., Goodhead, I., Herrero, J., Hobolth, A., Lappalainen, T., Mailund, T., Marques-Bonet, T., McCarthy, S., Montgomery, S. H., Schwalie, P. C., Tang, Y. A., Ward, M. C., Xue, Y., Yngvadottir, B., Alkan, C., Andersen, L. N., Ayub, Q., Ball, E. V., Beal, K., Bradley, B. J., Chen, Y., Clee, C. M., Fitzgerald, S., Graves, T. A., Gu, Y., Heath, P., Heger, A., Karakoc, E., Kolb-Kokocinski, A., Laird, G. K., Lunter, G., Meader, S., Mort, M., Mullikin, J. C., Munch, K., O’Connor, T. D., Phillips, A. D., Prado-Martinez, J., Rogers, A. S., Sajjadian, S., Schmidt, D., Shaw, K., Simpson, J. T., Stenson, P. D., Turner, D. J., Vigilant, L., Vilella, A. J., Whitener, W., Zhu, B., Cooper, D. N., de Jong, P., Dermitzakis, E. T., Eichler, E. E., Flicek, P., Goldman, N., Mundy, N. I., Ning, Z., Odom, D. T., Ponting, C. P., Quail, M. A., Ryder, O. A., Searle, S. M., Warren, W. C., Wilson, R. K., Schierup, M. H., Rogers, J., Tyler-Smith, C., & Durbin, &. R. (2012). Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence. Nature, 483(7388), 169-175. doi:10.1038/nature10842.

Schaumburg, F., Alabi, A. S., Köck, R., Mellmann, A., Kremsner, P. G., Boesch, C., Becker, K., Leendertz, F. H., & Peters, G. (2012). Highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from African non-human primates. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 4(1), 141-146. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00316.x.

Skinner, M.F., Skinner, M.M., Boesch, C. Developmental defects of the dental crown in chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte D'Ivoire: coronal waisting. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149: 272-282

Vallo, P., Petrželková, K. J., Profousová, I., Petrášová, J., Pomajbíková, K., Leendertz, F., Hashimoto, C., Simmons, N., Babweteera, F., Machanda, Z., Piel, A., Robbins, A. M., Boesch, C., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Sommer, V., Furuichi, T., Fujita, S., Matsuzawa, T., Kaur, T., Huffman, M. A., & Modrý, D. (2012). Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees./American Journal of Physical Anthropology,/ /148/(4), 525-533. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22100.


Arandjelovic, M., J. Head, L. I. Rabanal, G. Schubert, E. Mettke, C. Boesch, M. M. Robbins and L. Vigilant: Non-Invasive Genetic Monitoring of Wild Central Chimpanzees. In: PLoS ONE 6, 3, 1-11, Seq. No.: e14761 (2011). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014761

Boesch, C.: The diversity of the apes: what is the future?. In: Among African apes: stories and photos from the field. (Eds.) ed. by Martha M. Robbins and Christophe Boesch. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley (2011) 155-172.

Boesch, C.: Life and death in the forest. In: Among African apes: stories and photos from the field. (Eds.) ed. by Martha M. Robbins and Christophe Boesch. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley (2011) 30-42.

Boesch, C.: Our cousins in the forest - or bushmeat?. In: Among African apes: stories and photos from the field. (Eds.) ed. by Martha M. Robbins and Christophe Boesch. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley (2011) 77-87.

Campbell, G., H. Kuehl, D. Diarrassouba, P. K. N'Goran and C. Boesch: Long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested species. In: Biology Letters 7, 5, 723-726 (2011). doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0155

Gomes, C. M. and C. Boesch: Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzees. In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65, 11, 2183-2196 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s00265-011-1227-x

Hauser, B., L. Mugisha, A. Preis and T. Deschner: LC-MS analysis of androgen metabolites in serum and urine from east African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). In: General and Comparative Endocrinology 170, 1, 92-98 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2010.09.012

Head, J.: Keeping it in the family - tribal warfare between chimpanzee communities. In: Among African apes: stories and photos from the field. (Eds.) ed. by Martha M. Robbins and Christophe Boesch. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley (2011) 101-115.

Head, J. S., C. Boesch, L. Makaga and M. M. Robbins: Sympatric Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Loango National Park, Gabon: Dietary Composition, Seasonality, and Intersite Comparisons. In: International Journal of Primatology 32, 3, 755-775 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s10764-011-9499-6

Hicks, C. (2011). Encounters with Bili chimpanzees in the undisturbed Gangu Forest. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field (pp. 43-60). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

Hoppe-Dominik, B., H. S. Kühl, G. Radl and F. Fischer: Long-term monitoring of large rainforest mammals in the Biosphere Reserve of Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. In: African Journal of Ecology 49, 4, 450-458 (2011). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01277.x

Janmaat, K. R. L., C. A. Chapman, R. Meijer and K. Zuberbühler: The use of fruiting synchrony by foraging mangabey monkeys: a ‘simple tool’ to find fruit. In: Animal Cognition 15, 1, 83-96 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s10071-011-0435-0

Köndgen, S., M. Leider, F. Lankester, A. Bethe, A. Lübke-Becker, F. H. Leendertz and C. Ewers: Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees. In: PLoS ONE 6, 9, 1-9, Seq. No.: e24236 (2011). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024236

Kouakou, C. Y., C. Boesch and H. S. Kuehl: Identifying hotspots of chimpanzee group activity from transect surveys in Tai National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. In: Journal of Tropical Ecology 27, 6, 621-630 (2011). doi: 10.1017/S0266467411000423

Langergraber, K. E., C. Boesch, E. Inoue, M. Inoue-Murayama, J. C. Mitani, T. Nishida, A. Pusey, V. Reynolds, G. Schubert, R. W. Wrangham, E. Wroblewski and L. Vigilant: Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences 278, 1704, 408-416 (2011). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1112

Langergraber, K. E. and L. Vigilant: Genetic differences cannot be excluded from generating behavioural differences among chimpanzee groups. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences 278, 1715, 2094-2095 (2011). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0391

Langergraber, K., G. Schubert, C. Rowney, R. Wrangham, Z. Zommers and L. Vigilant: Genetic differentiation and the evolution of cooperation in chimpanzees and humans. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 1717, 2546-2552 (2011). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2592

Lazenby, R. A., M. M. Skinner, J.-J. Hublin and C. Boesch: Metacarpal trabecular architecture variation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for locomotion and tool-use?. In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144, 2, 215-225 (2011). doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21390

Leendertz, F. H., N. Scuda, K. N. Cameron, T. Kidega, K. Zuberbühler, S. A. J. Leendertz, E. Couacy-Hymann, C. Boesch, S. Calvignac and B. Ehlers: African Great Apes Are Naturally Infected with Polyomaviruses Closely Related to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus{triangledown}. In: Journal of Virology 85, 2, 916-924 (2011). doi: 10.1128/JVI.01585-10

Leendertz, S. A. J., S. Locatelli, C. Boesch, C. Kücherer, P. Formenty, F. Liegeois, A. Ayouba, M. Peeters and F. H. Leendertz: No evidence for transmission of SIVwrc from western red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) to wild west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) despite high exposure through hunting. In: BMC Microbiology 11, 24, 1-10 (2011). doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-24

Nunn, C. L., P. H. Thrall, F. H. Leendertz and C. Boesch: The Spread of Fecally Transmitted Parasites in Socially- Structured Populations. In: PLoS ONE 6, 6, 1-10, Seq. No.: e21677 (2011). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021677

Preis, A., L. Mugisha, B. Hauser, A. Weltring and T. Deschner: Androgen and androgen metabolite levels in serum and urine of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Comparison of EIA and LC–MS analyses. In: General and Comparative Endocrinology 174, 3, 335-343 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.09.010

Riedel, J., Franz, M., Boesch, C. 2011 How feeding competition determines female chimpanzee gregariousness and ranging in the Tai National Park, Côte d´Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology 73: 305-313

Schubert, G., C. J. Stoneking, M. Arandjelovic, C. Boesch, N. Eckhardt, G. Hohmann, K. Langergraber, D. Lukas and L. Vigilant: Male-Mediated Gene Flow in Patrilocal Primates. In: PLoS ONE 6, 7, 1-10, Seq. No.: e21514 (2011). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021514

Smith, B. H. and C. Boesch: Mortality and the magnitude of the “wild effect” in chimpanzee tooth emergence. In: Journal of Human Evolution 60, 1, 34-46 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.08.006

Townsend, S. W., T. Deschner and K. Zuberbühler: Copulation Calls in Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Convey Identity but Do Not Accurately Reflect Fertility. In: International Journal of Primatology 32, 4, 914-923 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s10764-011-9510-2

Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Amsini, F., Arranz, L., Asamoah, A., Babafemi, O., Barakabuye, N., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ellis, C., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T.,Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Greengrass, E., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T.H., Holbech, L., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I., Kumpel, N., Maisels, F., Marshall, P., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dogmo, Z., Tiku Okon, D., Plumptre, A., Rundus, A., Sunderland-Groves, J., Todd, A., Warren, Y., Mundry, R., Boesch, C., Kuehl, H. Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk. Conservation Letters 0 (2011) 1–8

Wevers, D., S. Metzger, F. Babweteera, M. Bieberbach, C. Boesch, K. Cameron, E. Couacy-Hymann, M. Cranfield, M. Gray, L. A. Harris, J. Head, K. Jeffery, S. Knauf, F. Lankester, S. A. J. Leendertz, E. Lonsdorf, L. Mugisha, A. Nitsche, P. Reed, M. Robbins, D. A. Travis, Z. Zommers, F. H. Leendertz and B. Ehlers: Novel Adenoviruses in Wild Primates: a High Level of Genetic Diversity and Evidence of Zoonotic Transmissions. In: Journal of Virology 85, 20, 10774-10784 (2011). doi: 10.1128/JVI.00810-11


Boesch, C., Bolé, C., Eckkhardt, N., Boesch, H. (2010). Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption. PlosOne Vol. 5/1/e8901. 

Boesch, C. (2010). Open peer commentary for BBS on Henrich, J. et al.. Away from Ethnocentrism and Anthropocentrism: Towards a scientific understanding of what makes us human”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33: 86-87.

Hohmann, G., Potts, K., N’Guessan, A., Fowler, A., Mundry, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., Ortmann, S. (2010). Plant foods consumed by Pan: exploring the variation of nutritional ecology across Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141: 476-485.

Janmaat, K.R.L.,Chancellor, R.L. (2010). Exploring New Areas: How Important is Long-Term Spatial Memory for Mangabey (Lophocebus albigena johnstonii) Foraging Efficiency? International Journal of Primatology 31: 863-866.

Koendgen, S, Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. (2010). Noninvasive monitoring of respiratory viruses in Wild Chimpanzees. EcoHealth online, doi 10.1007/s10393-010-0340-z.

Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Nishida T, Pusey A, Reynolds V, Schubert G, Wrangham RW, Wroblewski E, Vigilant L (2010) Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Leendertz, S.A., Metzger, S., Skjerve, E., Deschner, T., Boesch, C., Riedel, J., Leendertz, F. (2010). A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick paramenters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d´Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 71:1-10.

Newton-Fisher NE, Emery Thompson M, Reynolds V, Boesch C, Vigilant L (2010) Paternity and social rank in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 417-428.

Rabanal, L.I., Kuehl, H.S., Mundry, R., Robbins, M.M., Boesch, C. (2010). Oil prospecting and its impact on large rainforest mammals in Loango National Park, Gabon. Biological Conservation, 143: 1017-1024.

Riedel, J., Franz, M., Boesch, C.(2010). How feeding competition determines femal chimpanzees gregariousness and ranging in the Tai National Park, Côte d´Ivoire. Amercian Journal of Primatology 71:1-9. 

Smith, T.M., Smith, B.H., Reid, D.J., Siedel, H., Vigilant, L., Hublin, JJ, Boesch, C. (2010) Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of Human Evolution, 58: 363-373.

Stumpf, R.M., Boesch, C. (2010) Male agression and sexual coercion in wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Animal Behaviour 79: 333-342.

Wittig RM, Boesch C (2010): Receiving Post-Conflict Affiliation from the Enemy’s Friend Reconciles Former Opponents. PLoS ONE 5(11): e13995. 

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Boesch, C, Head, J, & Robbins, MM. (2009). Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution 56: 560-569.

Boesch, C.: The Real Chimpanzee: Sex Strategies in the Forest. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (2009) xvi: 181 S. p.

Gomes, C. M. and C. Boesch (2009). Wild Chimpanzees Exchange Meat for Sex on a Long-Term Basis. PLoS ONE 4, 4, Seq. No.: e5116.

Gomes, C. M., R. Mundry and C. Boesch (2009). Long-term reciprocation of grooming in wild West African chimpanzees. Proccedings of the Reoyal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 276, 1657: 699-706.

Herbinger, I., S. Papworth, C. Boesch and K. Zuberbühler (2009). Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: a playback study. Animal Behaviour 78, 6: 1389-1396.

Jensen, S. A., R. Mundry, C. L. Nunn, C. Boesch and F. H. Leendertz (2009). Non-invasive Body Temperature Measurement of Wild Chimpanzees Using Fecal Temperature Decline. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45, 2: 542-546. 

Junglen S., Kurth A., Ellerbrok H., Pauli G., Nunn C., Kuehl H., Leendertz F. H. (2009). Examining Landscape Factors Influencing Relative Distribution of Mosquito Genera and Frequency of Virus Infection. EcoHealth, Vol. 6, 2: 239-249.

Kouakou, C. Y., C. Boesch and H. Kühl (2009). Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Taï National Park. American Journal of Primatology 71, 6: 71-6.

Kuehl, H. S., C. Nzeingui, S. Le Duc Yeno, B. Huijbregts, C. Boesch and P. D. Walsh (2009). Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes. Biological Conservation 142, 7: 1500-1506.

Langergraber, K., J. Mitani and L. Vigilant (2009). Kinship and Social Bonds in Wild Female Chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Folia Primatologica 80, 2, 123-124.

Langergraber, K., J. Mitani and L. Vigilant 2009). Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71, 10: 840-851.

Leendertz, F. H., M. Deckers, W. Schempp, F. Lankester, C. Boesch, L. Mugisha, A. Dolan, D. Gatherer, D. J. McGeoch and B. Ehlers (2009). Novel cytomegaloviruses in free-ranging and captive great apes : phylogenetic evidence for bidirectional horizontal transmission. Journal of General Virology 90, 10: 2386-2394.

Lehmann, J. and C. Boesch (2009). Sociality of the dispersing sex: the nature of social bonds in West African female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Behaviour 77, 2: 377-387.

Morozov, V. A., F. H. Leendertz, S. Junglen, C. Boesch, G. Pauli and H. Ellerbrok (2009). Frequent foamy virus infection in free-living chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire). Journal of General Virology 90: 500-506.

Neel, C., Etienne, L., Li, Y., Takehisa, J., Rudicell, R., Ndong, I., Moudindo, J., Mebenga, A., Esteban, A., Van Heuverswyn, F., Liegeois, F., Kranzusch, P., Walsh, P., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Ndjango, J., Plantier, J.-C., Locatelli, S., Gonder, M., Leendertz, F., Boesch, C., Todd, A., Delaporte, E., Ngole, E., Hahn, B. and Peeters, M. (2009). Molecular epidemiology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in wild-living gorillas. Journal of Virology: JVI.021 29-09vl. 

N'Guessan, A. K., S. Ortmann and C. Boesch (2009). Daily Energy Balance and Protein Gain Among Pan troglodytes verus in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Primatology 30, 3: 481-496.

Normand, E. and C. Boesch (2009). Sophisticated Euclidean maps in forest chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 77, 5: 1195-1201.

Normand, E., S. Dagui Ban and C. Boesch (2009). Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees. Animal Cognition 12, 6: 797-807.

Rich, S. M., F. H. Leendertz, G. Xu, M. LeBreton, C. F. Djoko, M. N. Aminake, E. E. Takang, J. L. D. Diffo, B. L. Pike, B. R. Rosenthal, P. Formenty, C. Boesch, F. J. Ayala and N. D. Wolfe (2009). The origin of malignant malaria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 35: 14902-14907.

Sanz, C. M., J. Call and D. Morgan (2009). Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters 5, 3: 293-296.

Sanz, C. M. and D. B. Morgan (2009). Flexible and Persistent Tool-using Strategies in Honey-gathering by Wild Chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 30, 3: 411-427.

Vigilant, L. and K. Guschanski (2009). Using genetics to understand the dynamics of wild primate populations. Primates 50, 2: 105-120.

Vigilant, L. and K. Langergraber (2009). A Genetic Perspective on the Evolution of Cooperation in Chimpanzees and Humans. Folia Primatologica 80, 2.

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Boesch, C. (2008). Taking development and ecology seriously when comparing cognition: Reply to Tomasello and Call (2008). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121

Boesch, C. (2008). Why do chimpanzees die in the forest? The challenges of understanding and controlling for wild ape health. American Journal of primatology, 70: 722-726.

Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Wittig, R., Moebius, Y. and Normand, E. (2008). Intergroup conflicts among chimpanzees in Taï National Park: lethal violence and the female perspective. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 1-14.

Boesch, C. (2008). Culture in evolution: toward an integration of chimpanzee and human culture. In Explaining Culture Scientifically (Ed. M. Brown). Pp. 37-54. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Boesch, C., Gnakouri, C., Marques, L., Nohon, G., Herbinger, I., Lauginie, F., Boesch, H., Kouamé, S., Traoré M. and Akindes, F. (2008). Chimpanzee conservation and theatre: a case study of an awareness project around the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. In Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study (Eds, Stoinski, T., Steklis, D. and Mehlman, P.). pp.128-135. New York: Springer Science and Business Media.

Boesch, C., Herbinger, I., Boesch, H., and. (2008). The contribution of long-term research by the Taï Chimpanzee Project to conservation. In Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long-term Research (Eds: Richard Wrangham and Elizabeth Ross). Pp. 184-200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., N´Goran, P., Boesch, C. (2008). "Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Côte d’Ivoire." Current Biology, 18: R903-R904

Hauser, B.,Deschner, T., Boesch, C. (2008). "Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 23 endogenous steroids in small quantities of primate urine." J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 862: 100-12.

Hauser, B. Schulz, D. Boesch, C. & Deschner, T. (2008) Quantifying urinary testosterone levels of great apes – Problems with enzymatic hydrolysis using Helix pomatia juice. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 158: 77-86.

Kondgen, S., Kuhl, H., N'Goran P, K., Walsh, P. D., Schenk, S., Ernst, N., Biek, R.,

Formenty, P., Matz-Rensing, K., Schweiger, B., Junglen, S., Ellerbrok, H.,
Nitsche, A., Briese, T., Lipkin, W. I., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. H. (2008). "Pandemic Human Viruses Cause Decline of Endangered Great Apes." Curr Biol.,
8: 260-264

Lankester, F., Matz-Rensing, K., Kiyang, J., Jensen, S. A., Weiss, S., Leendertz, F.H. (2008). "Fatal ulcerative colitis in a western lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla)." J Med Primatol.

Leendertz, F. H., Zirkel, F., Couacy-Hymann, E., Ellerbrok, H., Morozov, V. A., Pauli, G., Hedemann, C., Formenty, P., Jensen, S. A., Boesch, C., Junglen, S.
et al. (2008). "Interspecies transmission of simian foamy virus in a natural predator-prey system." J Virol 82: 7741-7744.

Lehmann, J. and Boesch, C. (2008). Sex differences in chimpanzee sociality. International Journal of Primatology 29: 65-81.

Möbius, Y., Boesch, C., Koops, K., Matsuzawa, T., Humle, T.
(2008). "Cultural differences in army ant predation by West African chimpanzees? A comparative study of microecological variables." Animal Behaviour 76: 37-45.

Schoning, C., Humle, T., Möbius, Y., McGrew, W. C. (2008). "The nature of culture: Technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants revisited." Journal of Human Evolution 55: 48-59.

Skinner, M. M., Wood, B. A., Boesch, C., Olejniczak, A. J., Rosas, A., Smith, T. M., Hublin, J. J. (2008). "Dental trait expression at the enamel-dentine junction of lower molars in extant and fossil hominoids." J Hum Evol 54: 173-86.

Townsend, S.W., Deschner, T. & Zuberbühler, K. (2008) Female chimpanzees use copulation calls flexibly to prevent social competition. PLoS One 3(6): e2431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002431.

Waal de, F., Boesch, C., Horner, V. and Whiten, A. (2008). Comparing children and apes not so simple. Science, 319, 569.

Zihlman, A. L., Stahl, D. Boesch, C. et al. (2008). "Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire." Am J Phys Anthropol 135: 34-41.

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Boesch C, Head J, Tagg N, Arandjelovic M, Vigilant L, Robbins M (2007) Fatal chimpanzee attack in Loango National Park, Gabon: Observational and genetic evidence. International Journal of Primatology. 28-5

Boesch, C. (2007) What Makes Us Human (Homo sapiens)? The Challenge of Cognitive Cross-Species Comparison. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Vol. 121, No. 3, 227–240

Chi, F., Leider, M., Leendertz, F., Bergmann, C., Boesch, C., Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H., Hakenbeck, R. 2007. New Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones in Deceased Wild Chimpanzees. J. Bacteriology 189: 6085–6088

Deschner, T. and Boesch, C. 2007. Can the Patterns of Sexual Swelling Cycles
in Female Taï Chimpanzees be Explained by the Cost-of-Sexual-Attraction Hypothesis? International Journal of Primatology, Volume 28, Number 2, April 2007 , pp. 389-406(18)

Kuehl, H.S., Todd, A. & Walsh, P.D. 2007. Manipulating decay time for efficient large mammal density estimation: gorillas and dung height. Ecological Applications

Kuehl, Hjalmar S., Liz Williamson, Chrickette Sanz, David Morgan and Christophe Boesch (2007). Launch of A.P.E.S. database. Gorilla Journal 34: 20-21

Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2007. Best Practice Guidelines for Reducing the Impact of Commercial Logging on Wild Apes in West Equatorial Africa. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG). 32 pp.

Prepens, S., Kreuzer, K.-A., Leendertz, F.H. Nitsche, A., Ehlers, B. 2007. Discovery of herpesviruses in multi-infected primates 1 using locked nucleic acids (LNA) and a bigenic PCR approach. Virology Journal. 4:84.

Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2007.Chimpanzee Tool Technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Journal of Human Evolution, 52 (4): 420-433.

Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Strindberg, S., Onononga, J. R. 2007. Distinguishing between the Nests of Sympatric Chimpanzees and Gorillas in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 263-272.

Schöning, C. T. Humle, Y. Möbius, WC McGrew , in press. The nature of culture: Technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants. Journal of Human Evolution

Skinner, M. M.; Wood, B.; Boesch, C.; Oleijniczak, A.; Rosas, A.; Smith, T. M.; Hublin, J. J. (2007). Dental trait expression at the enamel-dentine junction of lower molars in extant and fossil hominoids. Journal of Human Evolution

Todd, A.F., Kuehl, H.S., Cipolletta, C. & Walsh, P.D. 2007. Using dung to estimate gorilla density: modeling dung deposition rate. Journal of Applied Ecology.

Walsh, P. D., Breuer, T., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Doran-Sheehy, D. 2007. Potential for Ebola Transmission between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Social Groups. American Naturalist, 169 (5), 684-689.

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Anderson, D., Nordheim, E. and Boesch, C. 2006. Environmental factors influencing the seasonality of estrus in chimpanzees. Primates, 47: 43-50

Boesch, C., Kohou, G., Néné, H., and Vigilant, L. 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Taï forest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130:103-115

Boesch C, Boesch H, Vigilant L (2006) Cooperative hunting in chimpanzees: kinship or mutualism? In: Cooperation in Primates and Humans, eds. Kappeler PM, van Schaik C. Springer-Verlag Berlin. pp. 139-150.

Carlson, K., Doran-Sheehy, D., Hunt, K., Nishida, T., Yamanaka, A. and Boesch, C. 2006. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution , 50(4): 394-404.

Klee, S., Ozel, M., Appel, B., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jacob, D., Holland, G., Leendertz, F., Pauli, G., Grunow, R. and Nattermann, H. 2006. Characterisation of Bacillusanthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Côte d’Ivoire and Cameroon. Journal of Bacteriology, 188(15): 5333-5344.

Leendertz, F., Lankester, F., Guislain, P., Néel, C., Drori, O., Dupain, J., Speede, S., Reed, P., Wolfe, N., Loul, S., Mpoudi-Ngole, V. Peeters, M., Boesch, C., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H. and Leroy, E. 2006. Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes. American Journal of Primatology, Volume 68, Issue 9 , Pages 928 – 933

Leendertz, F., Pauli, G., Maetz-Rensing, K., Boardman, W., Nunn, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jensen, S., Junglen, S. and Boesch, C. 2006. Pathogens as drivers of population declines: the importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biological Conservation, 131: 325-337.

Leendertz, F., Yumlu, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Vigilant, L., Junglen, S., Schenk, S. and Ellerbrok, H. 2006. A new Bacillus anthracis found in wild chimpanzees and gorilla from West and Central Africa. PLoS Pathogens, 2(1): 1-4

Lehmann, J., Fickenscher, G. and Boesch, C. In press. Kin biased investment in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour Volume 143, Number 8 / August, 2006: 931-955

Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Onononga, J.R., and Strindberg, S. (2006) Ape Abundance and Habitat Use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology, 27 (1), 147-179.

Morgan, D., and  Sanz, C. (2006).  Chimpanzee Feeding Ecology and Comparisons with Sympatric Gorillas in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.  Book chapter prepared for Primate Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates: Ecological, Physiological, and Behavioural Aspects, edited by G. Hohmann, M. Robbins, and C. Boesch, pp. 97-122

Sanz, C., and Morgan, D. (2006).Chimpanzee Tool Technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.  Journal of Human Evolution.  doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.11.001

Stumpf, R. and Boesch, C. 2006. The efficiency of female choice in chimpanzees of the Taï forest, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 60: 749-765.

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Boesch, C., Gnakouri, C., Marques, L., Nohon, G., Herbinger, I., Lauginie, F., Boesch, H., Kouamé, S., Traoré M. and Akindes, F.2005. Chimpanzee conservation and theatre: a case study on an awareness project around the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. In Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study (Eds, Stoinski, T., Mehlman, P. and Steklis, D.). New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers

Deschner, T.; Kpelle, D.; Rapid assessment of the primates of Draw River, Boi-Tano and Krokosua Hills, Rap Bulletin of Biological Assessment 36, 73-78 (2005)

Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, C.; How to Repair Relationships - Reconciliation in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [Artikel] Ethology 111 (8), 736-763 (2005

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Crockford C, Herbinger I, Vigilant L and Boesch C (2004) Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: a case for vocal learning? Ethology 110: 221-243

Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K. & Boesch, C (2004). Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior 46, 204-215

Leendertz Fabian H., Boesch Christophe, Ellerbrok Heinz, Rietschel Wolfram, Couacy-Hymann Emmanuel, and Pauli Georg (2004) Non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in wild adult chimpanzees of the Tai¨ National Park, Coˆ te d’Ivoire. Journal of General Virology (2004), 85, 3305–3312.

Leendertz F. H., Ellerbrok H., Boesch C., Couacy-Hymann E., Mätz-Rensing K., Hakenbeck V, Bergmann C., Abaza P., Junglen S., Moebius Y., Vigilant L., Formenty P., & Pauli G. (2004) Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest. NATURE VOL 430: 451-452

Leendertz Fabian H. , Sandra Junglen, Christophe Boesch, Pierre Formenty, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Valerie Courgnaud, Georg Pauli, and Heinz Ellerbrok (2004) High Variety of Different Simian T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Strains in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Apr. 2004, p. 4352-4356

Leendertz F. H., Ellerbrok H., Boesch C., Couacy-Hymann E., Mätz-Rensing K., Hakenbeck R., Bergmann C., Abaza P., Junglen S., Moebius Y., Vigilant L., Formenty P., Pauli G. 2004. Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest. Nature, 430:451-452.

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Bernhard Ehlers, Andreas Ochs, Fabian Leendertz, Michael Goltz, Christophe Boesch, and Kerstin Mätz-Rensing (2003) Novel Simian Homologues of Epstein-Barr Virus. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Oct. 2003, p. 10695-10699

Christophe Boesch (2003) Is Culture a Golden Barrier Between Human and Chimpanzee? Evolutionary Anthropology 12, S. 82–91.

Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K. & Boesch, C. 2003. Timing and probability of ovulation in relation to sex skin swelling in wild West African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Animal Behaviour, 66, 551-560.

Ehlers B., Ochs A., Leendertz F. H., Goltz M., Boesch C., Mätz-Rensing K. 2003. Novel simian homologues of Epstein-Barr virus. J. Virol. 77:10695-9.

Leendertz, F. H., Boesch C., Junglen S., Pauli G., Ellerbrok H. 2003. Characterisation of a new Simian T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a wild living chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) from Ivory Coast: Evidence for a new STLV-1 group? Sequence Note. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 19:255-258.

Roman M.Wittig and Christophe Boesch (2003) The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes). Behaviour 140, 1527-1559

Wittig, Roman Martin and Boesch, Christophe (2003) “ Decision-making” in conflicts of wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes): an extension of the Relational Model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:491–504

Wittig, Roman M. and Boesch, C. (2003) “Decision-making” in conflicts of wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes): an extension of the Relational Model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 55:209

Wittig, Roman M. and Boesch, C. (2003) Food Competition and Linear Dominance Hierarchy among Female Chimpanzees of the Ta National Park. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 24, No. 4

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Wittig, Roman M. (2002) Die anderen Vettern aus dem Wald - 25 Jahre Taï Schimpansen Projekt, Côte d’Ivoire, Westafrika. Phyllodrom, Journal 2002: 49-53

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Morin, P.A., Chambers, K.E., Boesch, C., and L. Vigilant 2001 Quantitative PCR analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Molecular Ecology 10: 1835-1844.

Vigilant, L., Hofreiter, M., Siedel, H. & Boesch, C. 2001 Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 12890-12895.

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Boesch, C. & H. Boesch-Achermann. 2000. The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 316 pp.

Crockford, C. 2000. Les chimpanzés du Parc National de Taï utilisent-ils des signaux référentiels ou symboliques? In: Etat des recherches en cours dans le Parc National de Taï (Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., eds.). Sempérvira. 9, pp. 41:44.

Deschner, T. 2000. Gonflements sexuels chez les femelles chimpanzés dans le Parc National de Taï: Un signal honnête de l’évolution? In: Etat des recherches en cours dans le Parc National de Taï (Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., eds.). Sempérvira. 9, pp. 54:58.

Goné Bi, B. Z. 2000. Distribution spatio-temporelle des plantes dont les fruits sont consommés par les chimpanzés du Parc National de Taï. In: Etat des recherches en cours dans le Parc National de Taï (Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., eds.). Sempérvira. 9, pp. 36:40.

Herbinger, I. 2000. Territorialité chez les chimpanzés. In: Etat des recherches en cours dans le Parc National de Taï (Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., eds.). Sempérvira. 9, pp. 59:65.

Stumpf, R. 2000. Reproductive Strategies of Female Chimpanzees in the Taï Forest, Côte d’Ivoire. In: Etat des recherches en cours dans le Parc National de Taï (Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., eds.). Sempérvira. 9, pp. 45:53.

Zinner, D. & T. Deschner. 2000. Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: Deceptive swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticide. American Journal of Primatology. 52, pp. 157:168.

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Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Dind, F., Donati, F., Steiner, C., Wyers, M. & B. Le Guenno. 1999. Outbreak of Ebola in wild chimpanzees. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179 (1), pp. 120:129.

Gagneux, P., Boesch, C. & D. Woodruff. 1999. Female reproductive strategies, paternity, and community structure in wild West African chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour. 57, pp. 19:32.

Gagneux, P., Wills, C., Gerloff, U., Tautz, D., Morin, P., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ryder, O. & D. Woodruff. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 96, pp. 5077:5082.

Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Yugiyama, Y., Tutin, C., Wrangham, R. & C. Boesch. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature. 399, pp. 682:685.

Wyers, M., Formenty, P., Cherel, Y., Guigand, L., Boesch, C. & B. Le Guenno. 1999. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with Ebola filovirus (CI-strain) in a naturally infected chimpanzee. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179 (1), pp. 54:59. 

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Arcadi, C., Robert, D. & C. Boesch. 1998. Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates. 39 (4), pp. 505:518.

Boesch, C. & M. Tomasello. 1998. Chimpanzee and human cultures. Current Anthropology. 39 (5), pp. 591:614.

Le Guenno, B., Formenty, P. & C. Boesch. 1998. Ebola virus outbreaks in the Ivory Coast and Liberia, 1994 - 1995. In: Marburg and Ebola Viruses (Klenk, H.-D., ed.), Berlin, Springer Verlag, pp. 77:84.