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Publications

Last update: July 1st, 2015

Ban, S. D., N’Goran, E., Tako, A., N’Guessan, A., Boesch, C., & Janmaat, K. (in preparation). Taï chimpanzees change their travel direction for rare feeding trees with fatty fruits.

Janmaat, K., Boesch, C., Byrne, R., Chapman, C., Goné Bi, Z. B., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Wrangham, R., & Polansky, L. (submitted). The spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How a large-brained primate can counteract the ephemeral nature of its foods.
Junker, J., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., & Kühl, H. S. (submitted). Evaluating human socio-economic development on biodiversity conservation: Improved education and access to fish protein, but not wealth, predict species preservation in West Africa.

Porter, L., Garber, P., Boesch, C., & Janmaat, K. (in press). Using GIS to examine long-term foraging strategies in tamarins and chimpanzees. In C. Shaffer, F. Dolins, J. Hickey, N. Nibbelink, & L. Porter (Eds.), GPS and GIS for primatologists: A practical guide to spatial analysis. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

2015

Boesch, C. (2015). Similarities between chimpanzee and human culture. In M. J. Gelfand, C.-Y. Chiu, & Y.-Y. Hong (Eds.), Handbook of advances in culture and psychology (Volume 5) (pp. 1-37). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Pr.
Junker, J., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., Stephens, C. R., Lormie, M., Tweh, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2015). Education and access to fish but not economic development predict chimpanzee and mammal occurrence in West Africa. Biological Conservation, 182, 27-35.
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Kalan, A. K., Mundry, R., Wagner, O. J. J., Heinicke, S., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2015). Towards the automated detection and occupancy estimation of primates using passive acoustic monitoring. Ecological Indicators, 54, 217-226.
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Moscovice, L. R., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Welcome back: Responses of female bonobos (Pan paniscus) to fusions. PLoS One, 10(5): e0127305.
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2014

Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Ziegler, T. E., & Wittig, R. M. (2014). Endogenous peripheral oxytocin measures can give insight into the dynamics of social relationships: A review. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8: 68.
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Fahy, G. E., Richards, M. P., Fuller, B. T., Deschner, T., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2014). Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 153(4), 635-642.
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Langergraber, K. E., Rowney, C., Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., & Vigilant, L. (2014). Genetic analyses suggest no immigration of adult females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 640-648.
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Langergraber, K. E., Rowney, C., Schubert, G., Crockford, C., Hobaiter, C., Wittig, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., Zuberbühler, K., & Vigilant, L. (2014). How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. Journal of Human Evolution, 69, 1-7.
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Luncz, L. V., & Boesch, C. (2014). Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females. American Journal of Primatology, 76(7), 649-657.
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Oelze, V. M., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Richards, M. P., & Boesch, C. (2014). Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution, 66(1), 95-106.
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Samuni, L., Mundry, R., Terkel, J., Zuberbühler, K., & Hobaiter, H. (2014). Socially learned habituation to human observers in wild chimpanzees. Animal Cognition, 17(4), 997-1005.
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Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Langergraber, K. E., Ziegler, T. E., & Zuberbühler, K. (2014). Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1778): 20133096.
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Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Langergraber, K. E., & Zuberbühler, K. (2014). Triadic social interactions operate across time: a field experiment with wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences (London), 281(1779): 20133155.
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2013

Blasse, A., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Goffe, A. S., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Mother-offspring transmission and age-dependent accumulation of Simian foamy virus in wild chimpanzees. Journal of Virology, 87(9), 5193-5204.
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Boesch, C. (2013). Ecology and cognition of tool use in chimpanzees. In C. M. Sanz, J. Call, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology (pp. 21-47). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Kutzner, N., Kühl, H., Boesch, C., Kappeler, P. M., Metzger, S., Schubert, G., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology, 22(4), 915-924.
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Coscolla, M., Lewin, A., Metzger, S., Maetz-Rennsing, K., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Nitsche, A., Dabrowski, P. W., Radonic, A., Niemann, S., Parkhill, J., Couacy-Hymann, E., Feldman, J., Comas, I., Boesch, C., Gagneux, S., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Novel mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolate from a wild chimpanzee. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 969-976.
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Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Langergraber, K., Ziegler, T. E., Zuberbühler, K., & Deschner, T. (2013). Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1755): 20122765.
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De Nys, H. M., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Thiesen, U., Boesch, C., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Age-related effects on malaria parasite infection in wild chimpanzees. Biology Letters, 9(4): 20121160.
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Fahy, G. E., Richards, M. P., Riedel, J., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2013). Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(15), 5829-5833.
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Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Rabanal, L. I., Makaga, L., & Kühl, H. S. (2013). Effective sociodemographic population assessment of elusive species in ecology and conservation management. Ecology and Evolution, 3(9), 2903-2916.
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Hicks, C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. J. (2013). Impact of humans on long-distance communication behaviour of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Folia primatologica, 84(3-5), 135-156.
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Janmaat, K. R. L., Ban, S. D., & Boesch, C. (2013). Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: What we can learn from their mistakes. Animal Cognition, 16(6), 851-860.
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Langergraber, K. E., Mitani, J. C., Watts, D. P., & Vigilant, L. (2013). Male–female socio-spatial relationships and reproduction in wild chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(6), 861-873.
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Murthy, S., Couacy-Hymann, E., Metzger, S., Nowak, K., De Nys, H. M., Boesch, C., Wittig, R. M., Jarvis, M. A., Leendertz, F. H., & Ehlers, B. (2013). Absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild. Journal of Virology, 87(19), 10651-10659.
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N’Goran, P. K., Kouakou, C. Y., N’goran, E. K., Konaté, S., Herbinger, I., Yapi, F. A., Kühl, H. S., & Boesch, C. (2013). Chimpanzee conservation status in the World Heritage Site Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 3(1), 326-336. Retrieved from http://www.ijias.issr-journals.org/abstract.php?article=IJIAS-13-090-02.
Polansky, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Long-term changes in fruit phenology in a West African lowland tropical rain forest are not explained by rainfall. Biotropica, 45(4), 434-440.
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Prüfer, K., Langergraber, K. E., Pääbo, S., & Vigilant, L. (2013). Reply to Gibb and Hills: Divergence times, generation lengths and mutation rates in great apes and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(8): E612.
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Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Menschenaffen: Begegnung mit unseren nächsten Verwandten. Stuttgart: Hirzel.
Sanz, C. M., Call, J., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Tool use in animals: Cognition and ecology. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
Wittiger, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Female gregariousness in Western Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is influenced by resource aggregation and the number of females in estrus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(7), 1097-1111.
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2012

Adlhoch, C., Kaiser, M., Loewa, A., Ulrich, M., Forbrig, C., Adjogoua, E. V., Akoua-Koffi, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Leendertz, S. A., Rietschel, W., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Schneider, B. S., & Leendertz, F. H. (2012). Diversity of parvovirus 4–like viruses in humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys in hunter–prey relationships. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(5), 589-862.
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Boesch, C. (2012). From material to symbolic cultures: Culture in primates. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology (pp. 677-692). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr.
Boesch, C. (2012). The ecology and evolution of social behavior and cognition in primates. In J. Vonk (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology (pp. 486-503). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr.
Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R., & Zuberbühler, K. (2012). Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger. Current Biology, 22(2), 142-146.
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Hicks, T. C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. (2012). Reactions of Bili-Uele chimpanzees to humans in relation to their distance from roads and villages. American Journal of Primatology, 74(8), 721-733.
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Kühl, H. S., N'Guessan, A., Riedel, J., Metzger, S., & Deschner, T. (2012). The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio. PLoS One, 7(4): e35610.
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Langergraber, K., Pruefer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J. C., Muller, M. N., Robbins, M. M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T. S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R., Wrangham, R. W., Zuberbühler, K., Pääbo, S., & Vigilant, L. (2012). Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(39), 15716-15721.
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Luncz, L. V., Mundry, R., & Boesch, C. (2012). Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities. Current Biology, 22(10), 922-926.
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N'Goran, P. K., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., N'Goran, E. K., Herbinger, I., Yapi, F. A., & Kühl, H. (2012). Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation. Conservation Biology, 26(3), 565-571.
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Neubauer, S., Gunz, P., Uta, S., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2012). Endocranial volumes in an ontogenetic sample of chimpanzees from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 147(2), 319-325.
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Scally, A., Dutheil, J. Y., Hillier, L. W., Jordan, G. E., Goodhead, I., Herrero, J., Hobolth, A., Lappalainen, T., Mailund, T., Marques-Bonet, T., McCarthy, S., Montgomery, S. H., Schwalie, P. C., Tang, Y. A., Ward, M. C., Xue, Y., Yngvadottir, B., Alkan, C., Andersen, L. N., Ayub, Q., Ball, E. V., Beal, K., Bradley, B. J., Chen, Y., Clee, C. M., Fitzgerald, S., Graves, T. A., Gu, Y., Heath, P., Heger, A., Karakoc, E., Kolb-Kokocinski, A., Laird, G. K., Lunter, G., Meader, S., Mort, M., Mullikin, J. C., Munch, K., O’Connor, T. D., Phillips, A. D., Prado-Martinez, J., Rogers, A. S., Sajjadian, S., Schmidt, D., Shaw, K., Simpson, J. T., Stenson, P. D., Turner, D. J., Vigilant, L., Vilella, A. J., Whitener, W., Zhu, B., Cooper, D. N., de Jong, P., Dermitzakis, E. T., Eichler, E. E., Flicek, P., Goldman, N., Mundy, N. I., Ning, Z., Odom, D. T., Ponting, C. P., Quail, M. A., Ryder, O. A., Searle, S. M., Warren, W. C., Wilson, R. K., Schierup, M. H., Rogers, J., Tyler-Smith, C., & Durbin, &. R. (2012). Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence. Nature, 483(7388), 169-175.
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Schaumburg, F., Alabi, A. S., Köck, R., Mellmann, A., Kremsner, P. G., Boesch, C., Becker, K., Leendertz, F. H., & Peters, G. (2012). Highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from African non-human primates. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 4(1), 141-146.
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Skinner, M. F., Skinner, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2012). Developmental defects of the dental crown in chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte D'ivoire: Coronal waisting. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149(2), 272-282.
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Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Amsini, F., Arranz, L., Asamoah, A., Babafemi, O., Barakabuye, N., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Davenport, T. R., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ellis, C., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Greengrass, E., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Holbech, L. H., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I., Kumpel, N., Maisels, F., Marshall, P., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dogmo, Z., Okon, D. T., Plumptre, A., Rundus, A., Sunderland-Groves, J., Todd, A., Warren, Y., Mundry, R., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2012). Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk. Conservation Letters, 5(1), 48-55.
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Vallo, P., Petrželková, K. J., Profousová, I., Petrášová, J., Pomajbíková, K., Leendertz, F., Hashimoto, C., Simmons, N., Babweteera, F., Machanda, Z., Piel, A., Robbins, A. M., Boesch, C., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Sommer, V., Furuichi, T., Fujita, S., Matsuzawa, T., Kaur, T., Huffman, M. A., & Modrý, D. (2012). Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 148(4), 525-533.
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2011

Arandjelovic, M., Head, J., Rabanal, L. I., Schubert, G., Mettke, E., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Non-Invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees. PLoS ONE, 6(3): e14761.
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Boesch, C. (2011). Life and death in the forest. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 30-42). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Boesch, C. (2011). Our cousins in the forest - or bushmeat? In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 77-87). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Boesch, C. (2011). The diversity of the apes: What is the future? In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 155-172). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., Diarrassouba, A., N'Goran, P. K., & Boesch, C. (2011). Long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested species. Biology Letters, 7(5), 723-726.
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Gomes, C. M., & Boesch, C. (2011). Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65(11), 2183-2196.
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Hauser, B., Mugisha, L., Preis, A., & Deschner, T. (2011). LC-MS analysis of androgen metabolites in serum and urine from east African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 170(1), 92-98.
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Head, J. (2011). Keeping it in the family - tribal warfare between chimpanzee communities. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 101-115). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Makaga, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2011). Sympatric chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Loango National Park, Gabon: Dietary composition, seasonality, and intersite comparisons. International Journal of Primatology, 32(3), 755-775.
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Hicks, C. (2011). Encounters with Bili chimpanzees in the undisturbed Gangu Forest. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field (pp. 43-60). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Hoppe-Dominik, B., Kühl, H. S., Radl, G., & Fischer, F. (2011). Long-term monitoring of large rainforest mammals in the Biosphere Reserve of Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. African Journal of Ecology, 49(4), 450-458.
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Janmaat, K. R. L., Chapman, C. A., Meijer, R., & Zuberbühler, K. (2011). The use of fruiting synchrony by foraging mangabey monkeys: A ‘simple tool’ to find fruit. Animal Cognition, 15(1), 83-96.
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Köndgen, S., Leider, M., Lankester, F., Bethe, A., Lübke-Becker, A., Leendertz, F. H., & Ewers, C. (2011). Pasteurella multocida involved in respiratory disease of wild chimpanzees. PLoS One, 6(9): e24236.
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Kouakou, C. Y., Boesch, C., & Kuehl, H. S. (2011). Identifying hotspots of chimpanzee group activity from transect surveys in Tai National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 27(6), 621-630.
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Langergraber, K. E., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Genetic differences cannot be excluded from generating behavioural differences among chimpanzee groups. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 278(1715), 2094-2095.
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Langergraber, K. E., Boesch, C., Inoue, E., Inoue-Murayama, M., Mitani, J. C., Nishida, T., Pusey, A., Reynolds, V., Schubert, G., Wrangham, R. W., Wroblewski, E., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 278(1704), 408-416.
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Langergraber, K., Schubert, G., Rowney, C., Wrangham, R., Zommers, Z., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Genetic differentiation and the evolution of cooperation in chimpanzees and humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1717), 2546-2552.
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Lazenby, R. A., Skinner, M. M., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2011). Metacarpal trabecular architecture variation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for locomotion and tool-use? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144(2), 215-225.
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Leendertz, F. H., Scuda, N., Cameron, K. N., Kidega, T., Zuberbühler, K., Leendertz, S. A. J., Couacy-Hymann, E., Boesch, C., Calvignac, S., & Ehlers, B. (2011). African great apes are naturally infected with polyomaviruses closely related to Merkel cell polyomavirus▿. Journal of Virology, 85(2), 916-924.
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Leendertz, S. A. J., Locatelli, S., Boesch, C., Kücherer, C., Formenty, P., Liegeois, F., Ayouba, A., Peeters, M., & Leendertz, F. H. (2011). No evidence for transmission of SIVwrc from western red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) to wild west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) despite high exposure through hunting. BMC Microbiology, 11: 24.
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Nunn, C. L., Thrall, P. H., Leendertz, F. H., & Boesch, C. (2011). The spread of fecally transmitted parasites in socially-structured populations. PLoS One, 6(6): e21677.
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Preis, A., Mugisha, L., Hauser, B., Weltring, A., & Deschner, T. (2011). Androgen and androgen metabolite levels in serum and urine of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Comparison of EIA and LC–MS analyses. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 174(3), 335-343.
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Riedel, J., Franz, M., & Boesch, C. (2011). How feeding competition determines female chimpanzee gregariousness and ranging in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 73(4), 305-313.
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Schubert, G., Stoneking, C. J., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Eckhardt, N., Hohmann, G., Langergraber, K., Lukas, D., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Male-mediated gene flow in patrilocal primates. PLoS One, 6(7): e21514.
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Smith, B. H., & Boesch, C. (2011). Mortality and the magnitude of the "wild effect" in chimpanzee tooth emergence. Journal of Human Evolution, 60(1), 34-46.
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Townsend, S. W., Deschner, T., & Zuberbühler, K. (2011). Copulation calls in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) convey identity but do not accurately reflect fertility. International Journal of Primatology, 32(4), 914-923.
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Wevers, D., Metzger, S., Babweteera, F., Bieberbach, M., Boesch, C., Cameron, K., Couacy-Hymann, E., Cranfield, M., Gray, M., Harris, L. A., Head, J., Jeffery, K., Knauf, S., Lankester, F., Leendertz, S. A. J., Lonsdorf, E., Mugisha, L., Nitsche, A., Reed, P., Robbins, M., Travis, D. A., Zommers, Z., Leendertz, F. H., & Ehlers, B. (2011). Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: A high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Virology, 85(20), 10774-10784.
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2010

Boesch, C. (2010). Away from ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism: Towards a scientific understanding of “what makes us human”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2-3), 86-87.
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Boesch, C., Bolé, C., Eckhardt, N., & Boesch, H. (2010). Altruism in forest chimpanzees: The case of adoption. PLoS One, 5(1): e8901.
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Hohmann, G., Potts, K., N'Guessan, A. K., Fowler, A., Mundry, R., Ganzhorn, J. U., & Ortmann, S. (2010). Plant foods consumed by Pan: Exploring the variation of nutritional ecology across Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141(3), 476-485.
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Janmaat, K. R. L., & Chancellor, R. (2010). Exploring new areas: How important is long-term spatial memory for mangabey (Lophocebus albigena johnstonii) foraging efficiency? International Journal of Primatology, 31(5), 863-886.
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Köndgen, S., Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., & Leendertz, F. H. (2010). Noninvasive monitoring of respiratory viruses in wild chimpanzees. EcoHealth, 7(3), 332-341.
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Leendertz, S. A. J., Metzger, S., Skjerve, E., Deschner, T., Boesch, C., Riedel, J., & Leendertz, F. H. (2010). A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick parameters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d'Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 72(8), 689-698.
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Néel, C., Etienne, L., Li, Y., Takehisa, J., Rudicell, R. S., Ndong, I., Moudindo, J., Mebenga, A., Esteban, A., Van Heuverswyn, F., Liegeois, F., Kranzusch, P. J., Walsh, P. D., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D., Ndjango, J.-B.-N., Plantier, J.-C., Locatelli, S., Gonder, M. K., Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Todd, A. F., Delaporte, E., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Hahn, B. H., & Peeters, M. (2010). Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living gorillas. Journal of Virology, 84(3), 1464-1476.
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Newton-Fisher, N. E., Thompson, M. E., Reynolds, V., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2010). Paternity and social rank in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142(3), 417-428.
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Rabanal, L. I., Kuehl, H., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2010). Oil prospecting and its impact on large rainforest mammals in Loango National Park, Gabon. Biological Conservation, 143(4), 1017-1024.
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Smith, T. M., Smith, B. H., Reid, D. J., Siedel, H., Vigilant, L., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2010). Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of Human Evolution, 58(5), 363-373.
DOI   
Stumpf, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2010). Male aggression and sexual coercion in wild West African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Animal Behaviour, 79(2), 333-342.
DOI   
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2010). Receiving post-conflict affiliation from the enemy's friend reconciles former opponents. PLoS One, 5(11): e13995.
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2009

Boesch, C. (2009). The real chimpanzee: Sex strategies in the forest. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
Boesch, C., Head, J., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution, 56(6), 560-569.
DOI   
Gomes, C. M., & Boesch, C. (2009). Wild chimpanzees exchange meat for sex on a long-term basis. PLoS One, 4(4): e5116.
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Gomes, C. M., Mundry, R., & Boesch, C. (2009). Long-term reciprocation of grooming in wild West African chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences, 276(1657), 699-706.
DOI   
Herbinger, I., Papworth, S., Boesch, C., & Zuberbühler, K. (2009). Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: A playback study. Animal Behaviour, 78(6), 1389-1396.
DOI   
Jensen, S. A., Mundry, R., Nunn, C. L., Boesch, C., & Leendertz, F. H. (2009). Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 45(2), 542-546.
DOI   
Junglen, S., Kurth, A., Kuehl, H., Quan, P.-L., Ellerbrok, H., Pauli, G., Nitsche, A., Nunn, C. L., Rich, S. M., Lipkin, W. I., Briese, T., & Leendertz, F. H. (2009). Examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection. EcoHealth, 6(2), 239-249.
DOI   
Kouakou, C. Y., Boesch, C., & Kuehl, H. (2009). Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: Validating methods in Taï National Park. American Journal of Primatology, 71(6), 71-6.
DOI   
Kuehl, H., Nzeingui, C., Le Duc Yeno, S., Huijbregts, B., Boesch, C., & Walsh, P. D. (2009). Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes. Biological Conservation, 142(7), 1500-1506.
DOI   
Langergraber, K. E., Mitani, J. C., & Vigilant, L. (2009). Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 71(10), 840-851.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Deckers, M., Schempp, W., Lankester, F., Boesch, C., Mugisha, L., Dolan, A., Gatherer, D., McGeoch, D. J., & Ehlers, B. (2009). Novel cytomegaloviruses in free-ranging and captive great apes: Phylogenetic evidence for bidirectional horizontal transmission. Journal of General Virology, 90(10), 2386-2394.
DOI   
Lehmann, J., & Boesch, C. (2009). Sociality of the dispersing sex: The nature of social bonds in West African female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour, 77(2), 377-387.
DOI   
Morozov, V. A., Leendertz, F. H., Junglen, S., Boesch, C., Pauli, G., & Ellerbrok, H. (2009). Frequent foamy virus infection in free-living chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire). Journal of General Virology, 90, 500-506.
DOI   
N'Guessan, A. K., Ortmann, S., & Boesch, C. (2009). Daily energy balance and protein gain among Pan troglodytes verus in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Primatology, 30(3), 481-496.
DOI   
Normand, E., & Boesch, C. (2009). Sophisticated Euclidean maps in forest chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 77(5), 1195-1201.
DOI   
Normand, E., Ban, S. D., & Boesch, C. (2009). Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees. Animal Cognition, 12(6), 797-807.
DOI   
Rich, S. M., Leendertz, F. H., Xu, G., LeBreton, M., Djoko, C. F., Aminake, M. N., Takang, E. E., Diffo, J. L. D., Pike, B. L., Rosenthal, B. R., Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Ayala, F. J., & Wolfe, N. D. (2009). The origin of malignant malaria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(35), 14902-14907.
DOI   
Sanz, C. M., & Morgan, D. (2009). Flexible and persistent tool-using strategies in honey-gathering by wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology, 30(3), 411-427.
DOI   
Sanz, C. M., Call, J., & Morgan, D. (2009). Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters, 5(3), 293-296.
DOI   
Vigilant, L., & Guschanski, K. (2009). Using genetics to understand the dynamics of wild primate populations. Primates, 50(2), 105-120.
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2008

Boesch, C. (2008). Culture in evolution: Towards an integration of chimpanzee and human culture. In Melissa J. Brown (Ed.), Explaining Culture Scientifically (pp. 37-54). Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Boesch, C. (2008). Taking development and ecology seriously when comparing cognition: Reply to Tomasello and Call (2008). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122(4), 453-455.
DOI   
Boesch, C. (2008). Why do chimpanzees die in the forest? The challenges of understanding and controlling for wild ape health. American Journal of Primatology, 70(8), 722-726.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Wittig, R. M., Möbius, Y., & Normand, E. (2008). Intergroup conflicts among chimpanzees in Taï National Park: Lethal violence and the female perspective. American Journal of Primatology, 70(6), 519-532.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Gnakouri, C., Marques, L., Nohon, G., Herbinger, I., Lauginie, F., Boesch, H., Kouamé, S., Traoré, M., & Akindes, F. (2008). Chimpanzee conservation and theatre: A case study of an awareness project around the Tai National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. In T. S. Stoinski, H. D. Steklis, P. T. Mehlmann (Ed.), Conservation in the 21st Century (pp. 128-135). New York [u.a.]: Springer.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Herbinger, I., & Boesch, H. (2008). The contribution of long-term research by the Taï Chimpanzee Project to conservation. In Richard Wrangham; Elizabeth Ross (Ed.), Science and Conservation in African Forests (pp. 184-200). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., N'Goran, P. K., & Boesch, C. (2008). Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Côte d'Ivoire. Current Biology, 18(19), R903-R904.
DOI   
de Waal, F. B. M., Boesch, C., Horner, V., & Whiten, A. (2008). Comparing social skills of children and apes. Science, 319(5863), 569-569.
DOI   
Hauser, B., Deschner, T., & Boesch, C. (2008). Development of a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 23 endogenous steroids in small quantities of primate urine. Journal of Chromatography B, 862(1-2), 100-112.
DOI   
Hauser, B., Schulz, D., Boesch, C., & Deschner, T. (2008). Measuring urinary testosterone levels of the great apes—Problems with enzymatic hydrolysis using Helix pomatia juice. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 158(1), 77-86.
DOI   
Köndgen, S., Kuehl, H., Kouamé N'Goran, P., Walsh, P. D., Schenk, S., Ernst, N., Biek, R., Formenty, P., Mätz-Rensing, K., Schweiger, B., Junglen, S., Ellerbrok, H., Nitsche, A., Briese, T., Lipkin, W. I., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., & Leendertz, F. H. (2008). Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes. Current Biology, 18(4), 260-264.
DOI   
Lankester, F., Matz-Rensing, K., Kiyang, J., Jensen, S. A., Weiss, S., & Leendertz, F. H. (2008). Fatal ulcerative colitis in a Western Lowland Gorilla. Journal of Medical Primatology, 37(6), 297-302.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Zirkel, F., Couacy-Hymann, E., Ellerbrok, H., Morozov, V. A., Pauli, G., Hedemann, C., Formenty, P., Jensen, S. A., Boesch, C., & Junglen, S. (2008). Interspecies transmission of simian foamy virus in a natural predator-prey system. Journal of Virology, 82(15), 7741-7744.
DOI   
Lehmann, J., & Boesch, C. (2008). Sexual differences in chimpanzee sociality. International Journal of Primatology, 29(1), 65-81.
DOI   
Möbius, Y., Boesch, C., Koops, K., Matsuzawa, T., & Humle, T. (2008). Cultural differences in army ant predation by West African chimpanzees? A comparative study of microecological variables. Animal Behaviour, 76(1), 37-45.
DOI   
Schöning, C., Humle, T., Möbius, Y., & McGrew, W. C. (2008). The nature of culture: Technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants revisited. Journal of Human Evolution, 55(1), 48-59.
DOI   
Skinner, M. M., Wood, B. A., Boesch, C., Olejniczak, A. J., Rosas, A., Smith, T. M., & Hublin, J.-J. (2008). Dental trait expression at the enamel-dentine junction of lower molars in extant and fossil hominoids. Journal of Human Evolution, 54(2), 173-186.
DOI   
Todd, A. F., Kühl, H. S., Cipolletta, C., & Walsh, P. D. (2008). Using dung to estimate gorilla density: Modeling dung production rate. International Journal of Primatology, 29(2), 549-563.
DOI   
Townsend, S. W., Deschner, T., & Zuberbühler, K. (2008). Female chimpanzees use copulation calls flexibly to prevent social competition. PLoS One, 3(6): e2431.
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Zihlman, A. L., Stahl, D., & Boesch, C. (2008). Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Tai National Park, Côte D’Ivoire. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 135(1), 34-41.
DOI   

2007

Boesch, C. (2007). What makes us human (Homo Sapiens)? The challenge of cognitive cross-species comparison. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121(3), 227-240.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Head, J., Tagg, N., Arandjelovic, M., Vigilant, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2007). Fatal chimpanzee attack in Loango National Park, Gabon. International Journal of Primatology, 28(5), 1025-1034.
DOI   
Chi, F., Leider, M., Leendertz, F. H., Bergmann, C., Boesch, C., Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H., & Hakenbeck, R. (2007). New streptococcus pneumoniae clones in deceased wild chimpanzees. Journal of Bacteriology, 189(16), 6085-6088.
DOI   
Deschner, T., & Boesch, C. (2007). Can the patterns of sexual swelling cycles in female Taï chimpanzees be explained by the cost-of-sexual-attraction hypothesis? International Journal of Primatology, 28(2), 389-406.
DOI   
Kuehl, H., Todd, A. F., Boesch, C., & Walsh, P. D. (2007). Manipulating decay time for efficient large-mammal density estimation: Gorillas and dung height. Ecological Applications, 17(8), 2403-2414.
DOI   
Kuehl, H., Williamson, L., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D., & Boesch, C. (2007). Launch of A.P.E.S. Database. Gorilla Journal, 34, 20-21. Retrieved from http://www.eva.mpg.de/primat/staff/kuehl/pdf/Kuehl_et_al_2007_Launch_of_the_APES_database.pdf.
Morgan, D., & Sanz, C. M. (2007). Best practice guidelines for reducing the impact of commercial logging on great apes in Western Equatorial Africa. Gland: The World Conservation Union (IUCN).
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Prepens, S., Kreuzer, K.-A., Leendertz, F. H., Nitsche, A., & Ehlers, B. (2007). Discovery of herpesviruses in multi-infected primates using locked nucleic acids (LNA) and a bigenic PCR approach. Virology Journal, 4: 84.
DOI   
Sanz, C. M., & Morgan, D. (2007). Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Journal of Human Evolution, 52(4), 420-433.
DOI   
Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D., Strindberg, S., & Onononga, J. R. (2007). Distinguishing between the nests of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(2), 263-272.
DOI   
Walsh, P. D., Breuer, T., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D., & Doran-Sheehy, D. M. (2007). Potential for Ebola transmission between gorilla and chimpanzee social groups. American Naturalist, 169(5), 684-689.
DOI   

2006

Anderson, D. P., Nordheim, E. V., & Boesch, C. (2006). Environmental factors influencing the seasonality of estrus in chimpanzees. Primates, 47, 43-50.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Boesch, H., & Vigilant, L. (2006). Cooperative hunting in chimpanzees: Kinship or mutualism? In P. M. Kappeler, & C. P. van Schaik (Eds.), Cooperation in primates and humans: Mechanisms and evolution (pp. 139-150). Berlin [u.a.]: Springer.
DOI   
Boesch, C., Kohou, G., Néné, H., & Vigilant, L. (2006). Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Taï forest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130(1), 103-115.
DOI   
Carlson, K., Doran-Sheehy, D. M., Hunt, K. D., Nishida, T., Yamanaka, A., & Boesch, C. (2006). Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(4), 394-404.
DOI   
Klee, S., Ozel, M., Appel, B., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jacob, D., Holland, G., Leendertz, F. H., Pauli, G., Grunow, R., & Nattermann, H. (2006). Characterization of bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. Journal of Bacteriology, 188(15), 5333-5344.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Lankester, F., Guislain, P., Néel, C., Drori, O., Dupain, J., Speede, S., Reed, P., Wolfe, N. D., Loul, S., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Peeters, M., Boesch, C., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H., & Leroy, E. M. (2006). Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes. American Journal of Primatology, 68(9), 928-933.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Pauli, G., Mätz-Rensing, K., Boardman, W., Nunn, C. L., Ellerbrok, H., Jensen, S. A., Junglen, S., & Boesch, C. (2006). Pathogens as drivers of population declines: The importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biological Conservation, 131(2), 325-337.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Yumlu, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Vigilant, L., Junglen, S., Schenk, S., & Ellerbrok, H. (2006). A new bacillus anthracis found in wild chimpanzees and a gorilla from West and Central Africa. PLoS Pathogens, 2(1): e8.
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Lehmann, J., Fickenscher, G., & Boesch, C. (2006). Kin biased investment in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour, 143(8), 931-955.
DOI   
Morgan, D., & Sanz, C. M. (2006). Chimpanzee feeding ecology and comparisons with sympatric gorillas in the Goualougo Triangle, Republik of Congo. In Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M.; Boesch, Christophe (Ed.), Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates (pp. 97-122). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morgan, D., Sanz, C. M., Onononga, J. R., & Strindberg, S. (2006). Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology, 27(1), 147-179.
DOI   
Stumpf, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2006). The efficacy of female choice in chimpanzees of the Taï Forest, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 60(6), 749-765.
DOI   

2005

Deschner, T., & Kpelle, D. (2005). Rapid assessment of the primates of Draw River, Boi-Tano and Krokosua Hills. Rap Bulletin of Biological Assessment, 36, 73-78.
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2005). How to repair relationships - reconciliation in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Ethology, 111(8), 736-763.
DOI   

2004

Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Vigilant, L., & Boesch, C. (2004). Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: A case for vocal learning? Ethology, 110, 221-243.
DOI   
Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J. K., & Boesch, C. (2004). Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior, 46, 204-215.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Rietschel, W., Couacy-Hymann, E., & Pauli, G. (2004). Non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in wild adult chimpanzees of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of General Virology, 85, 3305-3312.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Ellerbrok, H., Boesch, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Mätz-Rensing, K., Hakenbeck, V., Abaza, P., Bergmann, C., Möbius, Y., Vigilant, L., Formenty, P., & Pauli, G. (2004). Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest. Nature, 430, 451-452.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Junglen, S., Boesch, C., Formenty, P., Couacy-Hymann, E., Courgnaud, V., Pauli, G., & Ellerbrok, H. (2004). High variety of different simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Virology, 78(8), 4352-4356.
DOI   

2003

Boesch, C. (2003). Is culture a golden barrier between human and chimpanzee? Evolutionary Anthropology, 12(2), 82-91.
DOI   
Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J. K., & Boesch, C. (2003). Timing and probability of ovulation in relation to sex skin swelling in wild West African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Animal Behaviour, 66(3), 551-560.
DOI   
Ehlers, B., Ochs, A., Leendertz, F. H., Goltz, M., Boesch, C., & Matz-Rensing, K. (2003). Novel simian homologues of Epstein-Barr virus. Journal of Virology, 77(19), 10695-10699.
DOI   
Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Junglen, S., Pauli, G., & Ellerbrok, H. (2003). Characterization of a new simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-1) in a wild living chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) from Ivory Coast: Evidence of a new STLV-1 group? AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 19(3), 255-258.
DOI   
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2003). "Decision-making" in conflicts of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): An extension of the Relational Model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 54(4), 491-504.
DOI   
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2003). Erratum to: "Decision-making" in conflicts of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): An extension of the relational model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 55(2), 209-209.
DOI   
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2003). Food competition and linear dominance hierarchy among female chimpanzees of the Tai National Park. International Journal of Primatology, 24(4), 847-867.
DOI   
Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2003). The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). Behaviour, 140(11/12), 1527-1559. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4536105.

2002

Boesch, C., Hohmann, G., & Marchant, L. F. (2002). Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pr.
Wittig, R. M. (2002). Die anderen Vettern aus dem Wald - 25 Jahre Tai Schimpansen Projekt, Côte d'Ivoire, Westafrika. Phyllodrom Journal, 49-53.

2001

Bradley, B. J., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2001). Identification and redesign of human microsatellite markers for genotyping wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) DNA from faeces. Conservation Genetics, 1(3), 289-292.
DOI   
Morin, P. A., Chambers, K. E., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Molecular Ecology, 10(7), 1835-1844.
DOI   
Vigilant, L., Hofreiter, M., Siedel, H., & Boesch, C. (2001). Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98(23), 12890-12895.
DOI   

2000

Boesch, C., & Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural ecology and evolution. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Pr.
Crockford, C. (2000). Les chimpanzés du Parc National de Taï utilisent-ils des signaux référentiels ou symboliques? Sempérvira, 9, 41-44.
Deschner, T. (2000). Gonflements sexuels chez les femelles chimpanzés dans le Parc National de Taï: Un signal honnête de l'évolution? Sempérvira, 9, 54-58.
Girardin, O., Koné, I., Yao, T., & Stumpf, R. M. (2000). Reproductive strategies of female chimpanzees in the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. Sempérvira, 9, 45-53.
Goné Bi, Z. B. (2000). Distribution spatio-temporelle des plantes dont les fruits sont consommés par les chimpanzés du Parc National de Taï. Sempérvira, 9, 36-40.
Herbinger, I. (2000). Territorialité chez les chimpanzés. Sempérvira, 9, 59-65.
Zinner, D., & Deschner, T. (2000). Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: Deceptive swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticide. American Journal of Primatology, 52(4), 157-168.
DOI   

1999

Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Dind, F., Donati, F., Steiner, C., Wyers, M., & Le Guenno, B. (1999). Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Cote d'Ivoire. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179(Suppl 1), 120-126.
DOI   
Gagneux, P., Boesch, C., & Woodruff, D. (1999). Female reproductive strategies, paternity, and community structure in wild West African chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 57(1), 19-32.
DOI   
Gagneux, P., Wills, C., Gerloff, U., Tautz, D., Morin, P. A., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ryder, O. A., & Woodruff, D. (1999). Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96(9), 5077-5082.
DOI   
Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Yugiyama, Y., Tutin, C., Wrangham, R. W., & Boesch, C. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682-685.
DOI   
Wyers, M., Formenty, P., Cherel, Y., Guigand, L., Boesch, C., & Le Guenno, B. (1999). Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with Ebola filovirus (CI-strain) in a naturally infected chimpanzee. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 (Suppl 1), S54-S59.
DOI   

1998

Arcadi, A. C., Robert, D., & Boesch, C. (1998). Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates, 39(4), 505-518.
DOI   
Boesch, C., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Chimpanzee and human cultures. Current Anthropology, 39(5), 591-614.
DOI   
Le Guenno, B., Formenty, P., & Boesch, C. (1998). Ebola virus outbreaks in the Ivory Coast and Liberia, 1994 - 1995. In H.-D. Klenk (Ed.), Marburg and Ebola viruses (pp. 77-84). Berlin [u.a.]: Springer.