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Arandjelovic M, Bergl RA, Ikfuingei R, Jameson C, Parker M, Vigilant L (2015) Detection dog efficacy for collecting faecal samples from the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) for genetic censusing. Royal Society Open Science 2: 140423 pdf

Moore D, Langergraber KL, Vigilant L (2015) Genetic analyses demonstrate male philopatry and territoriality in savanna-woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania. International Journal of Primatology. DOI 10.1007/s10764-015-9830-8 pdf

Rosenbaum S, Hirwa JP, Silk JB, Vigilant L, Stoinski TS (2015) Male rank, not paternity, predicts male immature relationships in mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei. Animal Behaviour 104:13-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.02.025 pdf

Städele V, Van Doren V, Pines M, Swedell L, Vigilant L (2015) Fine-scale genetic assessment of sex-specific dispersal patterns in a multilevel primate society. Journal of Human Evolution 78: 103-113. pdf


Arandjelovic M, Head J S, Boesch C, Robbins M M, Vigilant L (2014) Genetic inference of group dynamics and female kin structure in a western lowland gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Primate Biology 1: 29-38. doi: 10.5194/pb-1-29-2014

Fünfstück T, Arandjelovic M, Morgan DB, Sanz C,  Breuer T, Stokes EJ, Reed P, Olson SH, Cameron K, Ondzie A, Peeters M, Kühl HS, Cipolletta C, Todd A, Masi S, Doran-Sheehy DM, Bradley BJ, Vigilant L (2014) The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rainforest. American Journal of Primatology 76: 868-878. pdf

Fünfstück T, Arandjelovic M, Morgan DB, Sanz C, Reed P, Olson SH, Cameron K, Ondzie A, Peeters M, Vigilant L (2014) The sampling scheme matters: Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P.t.schweinfurthii are characterized by clinal genetic variation rather than a strong subspecies break. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. pdf

Langergraber K, Rowney C, Schubert G, Crockford C, Hobaiter C, Wittig R, Wrangham R, Zuberbuhler K, Vigilant L (2014) How old are chimpanzee communities? TMRCAs of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. Journal of Human Evolution 69: 1-7. pdf

Langergraber K, Rowney C, Crockford C, Wittig R, Züberbuhler K, Vigilant L (2014) Genetic analyses suggest no immigration of adult females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 76: 640-648. pdf

Moore D, Vigilant L (2014) A population estimate of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)  in the Ugalla region using standard and spatially explicit genetic capture-recapture methods. American Journal of Primatology 76: 335-346. pdf

Moore D, Vigilant L (2014) Genetic diversity at the edge: Comparative assessment of Y-chromosome and autosomal diversity among eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania. Conservation Genetics 15: 495-207.  pdf

Roy J, Gray M, Stoinski T, Robbins MM, Vigilant L (2014) Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas. BMC Ecology 14: 21. pdf

Roy J, Vigilant L, Gray M, Wright E, Kato R, Kabano P, Basabose A, Tibenda E, Kühl HS, Robbins MM (2014) Challenges in the use of genetic mark-recapture to estimate the population size of Bwindi mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Biological Conservation 180: 249-261.  pdf

Roy J, Arandjelovic M, Bradley BJ, Guschanski K, Stephens CR, Bucknell D, Cirhuza H, Kusamba C,  Kyungu JC, Smith V, Robbins MM, Vigilant L (2014) Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations. Biology Letters. pdf

Schubert G, Stockhausen M, Hoffmann C, Merkel K, Vigilant L, Leendertz F, Calvignac-Spencer S (2014) Targeted detection of mammalian species using carrion fly–derived DNA. Molecular Ecology Resources. pdf


Chan Y-C, Roos C, Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C-C, Pei J-C K, Vigilant L (2013) Inferring the evolutionary histories of divergences in Hylobates and Nomascus gibbons through multilocus sequence data. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:82,  DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-82.

Gray M, Roy J, Vigilant L, Fawcett K, Basabose A, Cranfield M, Uwingeli P, Mburanumwe I, Kagoda E, Robbins MM (2013) Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological Conservation 158:230-238. pdf

Langergraber KE, Mitani JC, Watts DP, Vigilant L (2013) Male-female socio-spatial relationships and reproduction in wild chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 861-873 DOI: 10.1007/s00265-013-1509-6 pdf

Ostner J, Vigilant L, Bhagavatula J, Franz M, Schülke O (2013) Stable heterosexual associations in a promiscuous primate. Animal Behaviour 86: 623-631. pdf

Schubert G, Vigilant L, Boesch C, Klenke R, Langergraber K, Mundry R, Surbeck M, Hohmann G (2013) Co-residence between males and their mothers and grandmothers is more frequent in bonobos than chimpanzees. PloS One 8: e83870. pdf


Chan Y-C, Roos C, Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C-C, Vigilant L (2012) A comparative analysis of Y chromosome and mtDNA phylogenies of the Hylobates gibbons. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12:150. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-150

Chancellor RL, Langergraber K, Ramirez S, Rundus AS, Vigilant L (2012) Genetic sampling of unhabituated chimpanzees in Gishwati Forest Reserve, an isolated forest fragment in western Rwanda. International Journal of Primatology 33: 479-488. pdf

Chang ZF, Luo MF, Liu ZJ, Yang JY, Xiang ZF, Li M, Vigilant L (2012) Human influence on the population decline and loss of genetic diversity in a small and isolated population of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Genetica 140: 105-114. pdf

Groeneveld LF, Atencia R, Garriga RM, Vigilant L (2012) High diversity at PRDM9 in chimpanzees and bonobos. PloS ONE 7(7) e39064.

Langergraber KE, Prüfer K, Rowney C, Boesch C, Crockford C, Fawcett K, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Muller MN, Robbins MM, Schubert G, Stoinski TS, Viola B, Watts D, Wittig RM, Wrangham RW, Zuberbühler K, Pääbo S, Vigilant L (2012) Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:15716-15721. pdf

Scally A, Dutheil JY,. Hillier LW, Jordan GE, Goodhead I, Herrero J, Hobolth A, Lappalainen T, Mailund T, Marques-Bonet T, McCarthy S, Montgomery SH, Schwalie PC, Tang YA,Ward MC, Xue Y, Yngvadottir B, Alkan C, Andersen LN, Ayub Q, Ball EV, Beal K, Bradley BJ, Chen Y, Clee CM, Fitzgerald S, Graves TA, Gu1 Y, Heath P, Heger A, Karakoc E, Kolb-Kokocinski A, Laird GK, Lunter G, Meader S, Mort M, Mullikin JC, Munch K, O'Connor TD, Phillips AD, Prado-Martinez J, Rogers AS, Sajjadian S, Schmidt D, Shaw K, Simpson JT, Stenson PD, Turner DJ, Vigilant L, Vilella AJ, Whitener W, Zhu1 B , Cooper DN, deJong P, Dermitzakis ET, Eichler EE, Flicek P, Goldman N, Mundy NI, Ning Z, Odom DT, Ponting CP, Quail MA, Ryder OA, Searle SM, Warren WC, Wilson RK, Schierup MH, Rogers J, Tyler-Smith C, Durbin R (2012) Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence. Nature 483: 169-175. doi: 10.1038/nature10842.

Vigilant L, Groeneveld LF (2012) Using genetics to understand primate social systems. Nature Education Knowledge 3(7):3.


Arandjelovic M, Head J, Rabanal LI, Schubert G, Mettke E, Boesch C, Robbins MM, Vigilant L (2011) Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees. PLoS ONE 6(3): e14761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014761 html / pdf / supporting information

Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Nishida T, Pusey A, Reynolds V, Schubert G, Wrangham RW, Wroblewski E, Vigilant L (2011) Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278: 408-416. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1112. pdf

Langergraber KE, Vigilant L (2011) Genetic differences cannot be excluded from generating behavioural differences among chimpanzee groups (letter). Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.039. pdf

Langergraber K, Schubert G, Rowney C, Wrangham R, Zommers Z, Vigilant L (2011) Genetic differentiation and the evolution of cooperation in chimpanzees and humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 2546-2552. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2592 pdf

Schubert G, Stoneking CJ, Arandjelovic M, Boesch C, Eckhardt N, Hohmann G, Langergraber K, Lukas D, Vigilant L (2011) Male-mediated gene flow in patrilocal primates. PloS One 6(7): e21514. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021514 pdf

Thalmann O, Wegmann D, Spitzner M, Arandjelovic M, Guschanski K, Leuenberger C, Bergl RA, Vigilant L (2011) Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11:85 doi:10.1186/1471-2148- 11-85 link

Vigilant L, Langergraber K (2011) Inconclusive evidence for patrilocality in Neandertals (letter). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108:E87. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100100108. pdf


Arandjelovic M, Head J, Kühl H, Boesch C, Robbins MM, Maisels F, Vigilant L (2010) Effective non-invasive genetic monitoring of multiple wild western gorilla groups. Biological Conservation 143(7): 1780-1791. pdf

Chan Y-C, Roos C, Inoue-Muruyama M, Inoue E, Shih C-C, Pei K J-C, Vigilant L (2010) Mitochondrial genome sequences effectively reveal the phylogeny of Hylobates gibbons. PLoS ONE 5: e14419. pdf

Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Nishida T, Pusey A, Reynolds V, Schubert G, Wrangham RW, Wroblewski E, Vigilant L (2010) Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Muniz L, Perry S, Manson JH, Gilkenson, Gros-Louis J, Vigilant L (2010) Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. American Journal of Primatology 71: 1-13.

Newton-Fisher NE, Emery Thompson M, Reynolds V, Boesch C, Vigilant L (2010) Paternity and social rank in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 417-428. pdf

Schülke O, Bhagavatula J, Vigilant L, Ostner J (2010) Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Current Biology 20: 2207-2210. pdf

Smith TM, Smith BH, Reid DJ, Siedel H, Vigilant L, Hublin JJ, Boesch C (2010) Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of Human Evolution 58: 363-373.


Arandjelovic M, Guschanski K, Schubert G, Harris TR, Thalmann O, Siedel H, Vigilant L (2009) Two-step multiplex PCR improves the speed and accuracy of genotyping using DNA from noninvasive and museum samples. Molecular Ecology Resources 9:28-36. pdf

Guschanski K, Vigilant L, McNeilage A, Grey M, Kagoda E, Robbins MM (2009)
Counting elusive animals: comparison of a field and genetic census of the entire population of mountain gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Biological Conservation 142: 290-300. pdf

Harris TR, Caillaud D, Chapman CA, Vigilant L (2009) Neither genetic nor observational data alone are sufficient for understanding sex-biased dispersal in social- group-living species. Molecular Ecology 18: 1777-1790. pdf

Langergraber K, Mitani J, Vigilant L (2009) Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71: 1-12. pdf

Vigilant L, Guschanski K (2009) Using genetics to understand the dynamics of wild primate populations. Primates 50: 105-120. pdf

Vigilant L (2009) Elucidating population histories using genomic DNA sequences Current Anthropology 50: 201-212. pdf


Bergl R, Bradley BJ, Nsubuga AM, Vigilant L (2008) Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation, population size and demographic history on primate populations: the Cross River gorilla in a comparative context. American Journal of Primatology 70: 848-859. pdf

Bradley BJ, Doran-Sheehy DM, Vigilant L (2008) Genetic identification of elusive animals: Re-evaluating tracking and nesting data for wild western gorillas. Journal of Zoology 275: 333-340. pdf

Guschanski K, Caillaud D, Robbins MM, Vigilant L (2008) Females shape the genetic structure of a gorilla population. Current Biology 18: 1809-1814. pdf

Inoue E,  Inoue-Murayama M,  Vigilant L, Takenaka O, Nishida T (2008) Relatedness in wild chimpanzees: influence of paternity, male philopatry, and demographic factors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137: 256-262. pdf

Knapp M, Hofreiter M, Vigilant L (2008) Ancient DNA: phylogenetic applications. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Wiley publishing group.

Muniz L, Vigilant L (2008) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the white-faced capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) and cross-species amplification in other New World monkeys. Molecular Ecology. Resources 8:402-405. pdf

Nsubuga AM, Robbins MM, Vigilant L (2008) Patterns of paternity and group fission in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135:263-274 pdf

Perry S, Manson JH, Muniz L, Gros-Louis J, Vigilant L (2008) Kin-biased social behaviour in wild adult female white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Animal Behavior 76: 187-199. pdf


Bergl R, Vigilant L (2007) Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent migration within the highly fragmented range of the Cross River gorilla. Molecular Ecology 16: 501-516. pdf

Boesch C, Head J, Tagg N, Arandjelovic M, Vigilant L, Robbins M (2007) Fatal chimpanzee attack in Loango National Park, Gabon: Observational and genetic evidence. International Journal of Primatology 28: 1025-1034. pdf

Bradley BJ, Doran-Sheehy D, Vigilant L (2007) Potential for female kin associations in wild western gorillas despite female dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 2179-2185. pdf

Bradley BJ, Stiller M, Doran-Sheehy DM, Harris T, Chapman CA, Vigilant L, Poinar H (2007) Plant DNA sequences from feces: Potential means for assessing diets of wild primates. American Journal of Primatology 69: 1-7. pdf

Langergraber KE, Mitani JC, Vigilant L (2007) The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 7786-7790 pdf

Langergraber KE, Siedel H, Mitani JC, Wrangham RW, Reynolds V, Hunt KD and Vigilant L (2007) The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans. PLoS One. 10: e973

Thalmann O, Fischer A, Lankester F, Pääbo S, Vigilant L (2007) The complex evolutionary history of gorillas: insights from genomic data. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 146-158. pdf

Vigilant L (2007) Quick Guide: Bonobos.  Current Biology 17: R74-75. pdf


Boesch C, Boesch H, Vigilant L (2006) Cooperative hunting in chimpanzees: kinship or mutualism? In: Cooperation in Primates and Humans, eds. Kappeler PM, van Schaik C. Springer-Verlag Berlin. pp. 139-150.

Boesch C, Kohou G, Néné H and Vigilant L (2006) Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Taï forest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130: 103-115. pdf

Eriksson J, Siedel H, Lukas D, Kayser M, Erler A, Hashimoto C, Hohmann G, Boesch C, Vigilant L (2006) Y-chromosome analysis confirms highly sex-biased dispersal and suggests a low male effective population size in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology 15: 939-949. pdf

Leendertz FH, Yumlu S, Pauli G, Boesch C, Couacy-Hymann E, Vigilant L, Yunglen S, Schenk S, Ellerbrok H (2006) A new Bacillus anthracis found in wild chimpanzees and a gorilla from West and Central Africa. PLoS Pathogens2:1, e8 DOI: 10.1371. pdf

Muniz L, Perry S, Manson JH, Gilkenson H, Gros-Louis J, Vigilant L (2006) Father-daughter inbreeding avoidance in a wild primate population. Current Biology 16: R156-157. pdf


Bradley B. J., Robbins M. M., Williamson E. A., Steklis H. D., Steklis N. G., Eckhardt N., Boesch C., and Vigilant L. (2005) Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA: 102, 9418–9423. pdf

Lukas D and Vigilant L (2005) Reply: Facts, faeces and setting standards for the study of MHC genes using noninvasive samples. Molecular Ecology 14: 1601-1602 pdf

Lukas D, Reynolds V, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2005) To what extent does living in a group mean living with kin? Molecular Ecology 14:2181-2196. pdf

Thalmann O, Serre D, Hofreiter M, Lukas D, Eriksson J and Vigilant L (2005) Nuclear insertions help and hinder inference of the evolutionary history of gorilla mtDNA. Molecular Ecology 14:179-188. pdf


Bradley BJ, Doran-Sheehy DM, Lukas D, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2004) Dispersed male networks in western gorillas. Current Biology 14: 510-513. pdf

Chambers KE, Reichard UH, Möller A, Nowak K, and Vigilant L (2004) Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers using non- invasive samples from white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) American Journal of Primatology 64: 19-27. pdf

Crockford C, Herbinger I, Vigilant L and Boesch C (2004) Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: a case for vocal learning? Ethology 110: 221-243. pdf

Eriksson J, Hohmann G, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2004) Rivers influence the population genetic structure of bonobos. Molecular Ecology 13: 3425-3435. pdf

McGrew WC, Ensminger AL, Marchant LF, Pruetz JD and Vigilant L (2004) Genotyping aids field study of unhabituated chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 63: 87-93. pdf

Nsubuga AM, Robbins MM, Roeder A, Morin P, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2004) Factors affecting the amount of genomic DNA extracted from ape feces and the identification of an improved sample storage method. Molecular Ecology 13: 2089-2094. pdf

Lukas D, Bradley BJ, Nsubuga AM, Doran-Sheehy D, Robbins M, Vigilant L (2004) Major histocompatibility complex and microsatellite variation in two populations of wild gorillas. Molecular Ecology 13: 3389-3402. pdf - please note the following typographical error pdf - in addition, there is a commentary regarding this paper pdf

Pääbo S, Poinar H, Serre D, Jaenicke-Després V, Hebler J, Rohland N, Kuch M, Krause J, Vigilant L and Hofreiter M (2004) Genetic analyses from ancient DNA. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 645-79. pdf

Rohland N, Siedel H and Hofreiter M (2004) Nondestructive DNA extraction method for mitochondrial DNA analysis of museum specimens. Biotechniques 36: 814-821 pdf (Supplementary pages)

Thalmann O, Hebler J, Poinar H, Pääbo S and Vigilant L (2004) Unreliable mtDNA data due to nuclear insertions: a cautionary tale from analysis of humans and other great apes. Molecular Ecology 13:321-335. pdf

Vigilant L (2004) Quick Guide: Chimpanzees. Current Biology 14: R369-371 pdf

Vigilant L and Bradley BJ (2004) Genetic variation in gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 64: 161-172. pdf

Vigilant L and Bradley BJ (2004) Quick Guide: Gorillas. Current Biology 14: R826-827. pdf


Hofreiter M and Vigilant L (2003) Ancient human DNA: phylogenetic applications. In the online Encyclopedia of the Human Genome, Nature publishing group. pdf

Hofreiter M, Siedel H and Vigilant L (2003) Mitochondrial DNA sequence from a vanished remnant gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla uellensis). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121: 361-368. pdf

Vigilant L (2003) Genetic perspectives on Pan troglodytes verus. In: The West African Chimpanzee: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, eds. Kormos R, Boesch C and Bakarr M. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.


Bradley BJ and Vigilant L (2002) The evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology of chimpanzees and bonobos. In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos eds. Boesch C, Hohmann G, and Marchant L, Cambridge University Press.

Bradley BJ and Vigilant L (2002) False alleles derived from microbial DNA pose a potential source of error in microsatellite genotyping of DNA from feces. Molecular Ecology Notes 2: 602-605. pdf

Smith S, Vigilant L and Morin P (2002) The effects of sequence length and oligonucleotide mismatches on 5' exonuclease assay efficiency. Nucleic Acids Research 30: e111. pdf

Vigilant L (2002) Technical challenges in the microsatellite genotyping of a wild chimpanzee population using feces. Evolutionary Anthropology S1:162-165 pdf

Vigilant L (2002) Moving and mixing- Book review of Mapping Human History by Steve Olson. Science 297: 775 pdf


Bradley BJ, Chambers K and Vigilant L (2001) Accurate DNA-based sex identification of apes using non-invasive samples. Conservation Genetics 2: 179-181. pdf

Morin PA, Chambers KE, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2001) Quantitative PCR analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Molecular Ecology 10: 1835-1844. pdf

Vigilant L, Hofreiter M, Siedel H, and Boesch C (2001) Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98:12890-12895. pdf

Warren KS, Verschoor EJ, Langenhuijzen S, Heriyanto, Swan RA, Vigilant L and Heeney JH (2001) Speciation and intra-subspecific variation of Bornean orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18: 472-480. pdf


Bradley BJ, Boesch C and Vigilant L (2000) Identification and redesign of human microsatellite markers for genotyping wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) DNA from feces. Conservation Genetics 1: 289-292 pdf


Vigilant L (1999) An evaluation of techniques for the extraction and amplification of DNA from naturally shed hairs. Biological Chemistry 380: 1329-1331. pdf