Boesch, C. 2012: Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boesch, C. and O'Connell, S. 2012: Chimpanzee: The Making of the Film. Disney Editions New York


Boesch, C. 2009. The Real Chimpanzee: Sex Strategies in the Forest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. 2000. The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Sanz Crickette M. , Call, J., Boesch, C. 2013: Tool Use in Animals - Cognition and Ecology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Boesch, C., Grundmann, E., Mulhauser, B. 2011: Manifeste pour les Grands Singes. Le Savoir Suisse, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes.


Robbins, MM. and Boesch, C. (eds) 2011. Among African Apes: Stories and photos from the field. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Hohmann, G. and Robbins, M. Boesch, C. 2006. Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Reichard, U. and C. Boesch. 2003. Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Boesch, C., Hohmann, G. and Marchant, L. 2002. Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



Tutin, C., Stokes, E. Boesch, C. and Kormos, R. 2005. Regional Action Plan for Chimpanzees and Gorillas in West Equatorial Africa. Washington: Conservation International.


Doran, D. and Boesch, C. 2003. Special Issue on Western Lowland Gorillas. American Journal of Primatology.

Kormos, R. and Boesch, C. 2003. Regional Action Plan for Chimpanzees in West Africa. Washington: Conservation International.

Kormos, R., Boesch, C., Bakkar, M. and Butynski, T. 2003. The West African Chimpanzee: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


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D’arc, M., Ayouba, A., Esteban, A., Learn, G. H., Boué, V., Liegeois, F., Etienne, L., Tagg, N., Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Madinda, N. F., Robbins, A. M., Gray, M., Cournil, A., Ooms, M., Letko, M., Simon, V. A., Sharp, P. M., Hahn, B. H., Delaporte, E., Ngole, E. M., & Peeters, M. (2015). Origin of the HIV-1 group O epidemic in western lowland gorillas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(11), E1343-E1352. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1502022112

Eckhardt, N., Polansky, L., & Boesch, C. (2015). Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 77(2), 125-134. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22316

Hedwig, D., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2015). Contextual correlates of syntactic variation in mountain and western gorilla close-distance vocalizations: Indications for lexical or phonological syntax? Animal Cognition, 18(2), 423-435. doi: 10.1007/s10071-014-0812-6

Junker, J., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., Stephens, C. R., Lormie, M., Tweh, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2015). Education and access to fish but not economic development predict chimpanzee and mammal occurrence in West Africa. Biological Conservation, 182, 27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.034

Kalan, A. K., Mundry, R., & Boesch, C. (2015). Wild chimpanzees modify food call structure with respect to tree size for a particular fruit species. Animal Behaviour, 101, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.12.011

Kalan, A. K., Mundry, R., Wagner, O. J. J., Heinicke, S., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2015). Towards the automated detection and occupancy estimation of primates using passive acoustic monitoring. Ecological Indicators, 54, 217-226. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.02.023

Luncz, L. V., & Boesch, C. (2015). The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities: A microecological approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 156(1), 67-75. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22628

Saéz, A. M., Weiss, S., Nowak, K., Lapeyre, V., Zimmermann, F., Düx, A., Kühl, H. S., Kaba, M., Regnaut, S., Merkel, K., Sachse, A., Thiesen, U., Villányi, L., Boesch, C., Dabrowski, P. W., Radonić, A., Nitsche, A., Leendertz, S. A. J., Petterson, S., Becker, S., Krähling, V., Couacy-Hymann, E., Akoua-Koffi, C., Weber, N., Schaade, L., Fahr, J., Borchert, M., Gogarten, J. F., Calvignac-Spencer, S., & Leendertz, F. H. (2015). Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 7(1), 17-23. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201404792
Download: [Saez_Investigating_EMBOMolecularMedicine_2014.pdf]

Sirianni, G., Mundry, R., & Boesch, C. (2015). When to choose which tool: Multidimensional and conditional selection of nut-cracking hammers in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 100, 152-165. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.022


Arandjelovic, M., Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2014). Genetic inference of group dynamics and female kin structure in a western lowland gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Primate Biology, 1(1), 29-38. doi: 10.5194/pb-1-29-2014
Downloads: [Arandjelovic_Genetic_PrimBiol_2014.pdf] [Arandjelovic_Genetic_PrimBiol_2014_Suppl.pdf]

Ban, S. D., Boesch, C., & Janmaat, K. (2014). Taï chimpanzees anticipate revisiting high-valued fruit trees from further distances. Animal Cognition, 17(6), 1353-1364. doi: 10.1007/s10071-014-0771-y (pdf)

Borchers, C., Boesch, C., Riedel, J., Guilahoux, H., Ouattara, D., & Randler, C. (2014). Environmental education in Côte d'Ivoire/West Africa: Extra-curricular primary school teaching shows positive impact on environmental knowledge and attitudes. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 4(3), 240-259. doi: 10.1080/21548455.2013.803632

De Nys, H. M., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Boesch, C., Dorny, P., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2014). Malaria parasite detection increases during pregnancy in wild chimpanzees. Malaria Journal, 13: 413. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-413
Downloads: [] [DeNys_Malaria_Malariajournal_2014.pdf]

Eckhardt, N., Polansky, L. and Boesch, C. (2014), Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22316

Fahy, G. E., Boesch, C., Hublin, J.-J., & Richards, M. P. (2014). Dietary ecology of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyes verus) inferred from a comparison of behavioural and bone carbonate (d13C and d18O) and collagen (d13C and d15N) isotopic analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 153(S58), 115. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22488

Fahy, G. E., Richards, M. P., Fuller, B. T., Deschner, T., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2014). Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 153(4), 635-642. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22464 (pdf)

Gogarten, J. F., Akoua-Koffi, C., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Leendertz, S. A. J., Weiss, S., Couacy-Hymann, E., Koné, I., Peeters, M., Wittig, R. M., Boesch, C., Hahn, B. H., & Leendertz, F. H. (2014). The ecology of primate retroviruses – An assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d'Ivoire. Virology, 460-461, 147-153. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.012

Hedwig, D., Hammerschmidt, K., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2014). Acoustic structure and variation in mountain and western gorilla close calls: a syntactic approach. Behaviour, 151(8), 1091-1120. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003175

Hicks, T. C., Tranquilli, S., Kühl, H. S., Campbell, G., Swinkels, J., Darby, L., Boesch, C., Hart, J., & Menken, S. B. (2014). Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence: Discovery of a large, continuous population of Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Central Uele region of northern DRC. Biological Conservation, 171, 107-113. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.01.002

Janmaat, K., Polansky, L., Ban, S. D., & Boesch, C. (2014). Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(46), 16343-16348. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407524111

Junker J., Boesch C., Mundry R., Stephens C., Lormie M., Tweh C., Kühl H. (2014). Education and access to fish but not economic development predict chimpanzee and mammal occurrence in West Africa
doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.034 (pdf)

Luncz, L. V., & Boesch, C. (2014). Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females. American Journal of Primatology, 76(7), 649-657. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22259

Oelze, V. M., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Richards, M. P., & Boesch, C. (2014). Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution, 66(1), 95-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.10.003

Oelze, V. M., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Richards, M., & Boesch, C. (2014). Seasonality and niche partitioning among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 153(S58), 200. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22488

Radonić, A., Metzger, S., Dabrowski, P. W., Couacy-Hymann, E., Schuenadel, L., Kurth, A., Mätz-Rensing, K., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. H., & Nitsche, A. (2014). Fatal monkeypox in wild-living sooty mangabey, Côte d’Ivoire, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 1009-1011. doi: 10.3201/eid2006.131329
Download: [Radonic_Fatal_EmInfDiseases_2014.pdf]

Wilson, M. L., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Furuichi, T., Gilby, I. C., Hashimoto, C., Hobaiter, C. L., Hohmann, G., Itoh, N., Koops, K., Lloyd, J. N., Matsuzawa, T., Mitani, J. C., Mjungu, D. C., Morgan, D., Muller, M. N., Mundry, R., Nakamura, M., Pruetz, J., Pusey, A. E., Riedel, J., Sanz, C., Schel, A. M., Simmons, N., Waller, M., Watts, D. P., White, F., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., & Wrangham, R. W. (2014). Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature, 513, 414-417. doi: 10.1038/nature13727


Blasse, A., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Goffe, A. S., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., et al. (2013). Mother-Offspring Transmission and Age-Dependent Accumulation of Simian Foamy Virus in Wild Chimpanzees. Journal of Virology, 87(9), 5193-5204. doi:10.1128/JVI.02743-12.

Boesch, C. 2013: Ecology and cognition of tool use in chimpanzees. In: Tool Use in Animals - Cognition and Ecology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (pdf)

Boesch, C., & Deschner, T. (2013). Schimpansen - der Film: Forschung hinter den Kulissen [Website].

Borchers C., Boesch C., Riedel J., Guilahoux H., Ouattara D., Randler R. (2013). Environmental Education in Côte d'Ivoire/West Africa: Extra-Curricular Primary School Teaching Shows Positive Impact on Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes. International Journal of Science Education, Part B. (pdf)

Call, J. (2013). Three ingredients for becoming a creative tool user. In C. M. Sanz, J. Call, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology (pp. 3-20). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Kutzner, N., Kühl, H., Boesch, C., Kappeler, P.M., Metzger, S., Schubert, G., Leendertz, F. (2013) Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology 22, 915–924. (pdf)

Coscolla, M., Lewin, A., Metzger, S. , Maetz-Rennsing, K., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Nitsche, A., Wojtek Dabrowski, P., Radonic, A., Niemann, S., Parkhill, J., Couacy-Hymann, E., Feldman, J., Comas, I., Boesch, C., Gagneux, S. and Leendertz, F.H. 2013. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, No. 6, June 2013. (pdf)

De Nys, H. M., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Thiesen, U., Boesch, C., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R., & Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Age-related effects on malaria parasite infection in wild chimpanzees. Biology Letters 9(4): 20121160. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1160. (pdf)

Fahy G.E., Richards M., Riedel J., Hublin J.J. and Boesch C. (2013). Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees. PNAS. (pdf)

Fahy, G. E., Richards, M. P., Riedel, J., Hublin, J.-J., & Boesch, C. (2013). The role of the hunter: stable isotope evidence of hunting in adult male chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Suppl. 56, Special Issue, 121.

Head, J., Boesch, C., Robbins, M.M., Rabanal, L., Makaga, L., Kühl, H. 2013 Effective sociodemographic population assessment of elusive species in ecology and conservation management. Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1002/ece3.670 (pdf)

Hicks, T. C., Tranquilli, S., Kühl, H., Campbell, G., Swinkels, J., Darby, L., et al. (2013). A large, continuous, and stable population of Eastern Chimpanzees inhabits the forest of Northern DR Congo. Folia primatologica, 84, 286-287. doi:10.1159/000354129.

Janmaat, KRL, Ban, SD & Boesch, C (2013). Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes. Animal Cognition, DOI 10.1007/s10071-013-0617-z. (pdf)

Janmaat, K.R.L., Ban, S .D., Boesch, C. (2013). Chimpanzees use long-term spatial memory to monitor large fruit trees and remember feeding experiences across seasons. Animal Behaviour, Vol. 86, Issue 6, 1183-1205 (pdf)

Kalan, A., & Boesch, C. (2013). Do wild Chimpanzees have functionally referential food calls? Folia primatologica, 84, 290. doi:10.1159/00035412.

Luncz, L. V., & Boesch, C. (2013). Conformity to group specific tool use behaviour among three neighbouring chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities in Cote d'Ivoire. Folia primatologica, 84, 298. doi:10.1159/000354129.

McPherron, S. J. P. (2013). Perspectives on stone tools and cognition in the early Paleolithic record. In C. Sanz, J. Call, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology (pp. 286-309). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

Murthy, S., Couacy-Hymann, E., Metzger, S., Nowak, K., De Nys, H., Boesch, C., Wittig, R.M., Jarvis, M.A., Leendertz, F.H. & Ehlers, B. (2013) Absence of frequent Herpesvirus transmission in non-human primate predator – prey system in the wild. Journal of Virology 87:10651-10659.

N’Goran, P.K., Kouakou, C. Y., N’goran, E.K., Konaté, S., Herbinger, I., Yapi, F.A., Kuehl, H., Boesch, C. (2013) Chimpanzee conservation status in the World Heritage Site Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 3, 326-336. (pdf)

Polansky, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Long-term Changes in Fruit Phenology in a West African Lowland Tropical Rain Forest are Not Explained by Rainfall. Biotropica, 45(4), 434-440. doi:10.1111/btp.12033. (pdf)

Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Menschenaffen: Begegnung mit unseren nächsten Verwandten. Stuttgart: Hirzel.

Sanz, C. M., Call, J., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013). Tool use in animals: cognition and ecology. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.

Schaumburg, F., Mugisha, L., Kappeler, P., Fichtel, C., Köck, R., Köndgen, S., et al. (2013). Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. PLoS One, 8(10):. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078046. (pdf)

Schubert, G., Vigilant, L., Boesch, C., Klenke, R., Langergraber, K. E., Mundry, R., et al. (2013). Co–residence between males and their mothers and grandmothers is more frequent in bonobos than chimpanzees. PLoS One, 8(12):. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083870. (pdf)

Scuda, N., Madinda, N. F., Akoua-Koffi, C., Adjogoua, E. V., Wevers, D., Hofmann, J., et al. (2013). Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: Genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population. PLoS Pathogens, 9(6):. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003429. (pdf)

Wittiger, L., & Boesch, C. (2013). Female gregariousness in Western Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is influenced by resource aggregation and the number of females in estrus./Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(7), 1097-1111. doi:10.1007/s00265-013-1534-5. (pdf)


Adlhoch, C. Kaiser, M., Loewa, A., Ulrich, M., Forbrig, C., Adjogoua, E.V., Akoua-Koffi, C. Couacy-Hymann, E., Leendertz, S.A., Rietschel, W., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Schneider, B.S., Leendertz, F.H. 2012. Diversity of Parvovirus 4-like Viruses in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Monkeys in Hunter-Prey Relationships. Emerging Infectious Diseases  Vol. 18, No. 5, May 2012. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2012. From material to symbolic cultures: Culture in primates. In: Valsiner, J. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2012. The Ecology and Evolution of Social Behavior and Cognition in Primates. In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology, edited by J. Vonk and T. Shackelford, Oxford: Oxford University Press (pdf)

Breuer, T.; Robbins, A.M., Boesch, C., Robbins, M.M. 2012. Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution, 62 (2012) 466e472 (pdf)

Calvignac-Spencer, S., Merkel, K., Kutzner, N., Kühl, H., Boesch, C., Kappeler, P.M., Metzger, S., Schubert, G., Leendertz, F.H. (2012). Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology doi: 10.1111/mec.12183 (pdf)

Deschner, T., Fuller, B., Oelze, V., Boesch, C., Hublin, JJ., Mundry, R., Richards, M.P., Ortmann, S., Hohmann, G. Identification of energy consumption and nutrional stress by isotopic and elemental analysis of urine in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2012, 26, 69-77. (pdf)

Head, JS, Robbins, MM, Mundry, R, Makaga, L, and Boesch, C. 2012. Remote video-camera traps measure habitat use and competitive exclusion among sympatric chimpanzee, gorilla and elephant in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 28: 571-583. (pdf)

Junker, J., Blake, S., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., du Toit, L., Duvall, C., Ekobo, A., Etoga, G., Galat-Luong, A., Gamys, J., Ganas-Swaray, J., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Granier, N., Hart, J., Head, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T.C., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I., Kuempel, N., Lahm, S., Lindsell, J., Maisels, F., McLennan, M., Martinez, L., Morgan, B., Morgan, D., Mulindahabi, F., Mundry, R., N’Goran, P., Normand, E., Ntongho, A., Tiku Okon, D., Petre, C.-A., Plumptre, A., Rainey, H., Regnaut, S., Sanz, C.,Stokes, E, Tondossama, A., Tranquilli, S., Sunderland-Groves, J., Walsh, P., Warren, Y., Williamson, E.A. and Kuehl, H.S. Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes 2012. Diversity and Distributions, (2012) 1–15, DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12005 (pdf)

Langergraber, K., Pruefer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J., Muller, M.N., Robbins, M.M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T.S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbuehler, K., Pääbo, S., Vigilant, L. 2012 Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. PNASAugust 13, 2012 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1211740109 (pdf)

Luncz, L. V., Mundry, R., Boesch, C. 2012 Evidence for Cultural Differences between Neighboring Chimpanzee Communities. Current Biology 22, 1–5, May 22, 2012 - DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.031 (pdf)

N´Goran, P. K., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., N´Goran, E.K., Herbinger, I., Yapi, F.A., Kühl, H.S. 2012 Hunting, Law Enforcement, and African Primate Conservation. Conservation Biology  DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01821.x (pdf)

Neubauer, S., Gunz, P., Schwarz, U., Hublin, J.-J. and C. Boesch (2012) Endocranial volumes in an ontogenetic sample of chimpanzees from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast. /American Journal of Physical Anthropology/. 147(2):319-325. (pdf)

Schaumburg, F., Alabi, A., Köck, R., Mellmann, A., Kremsner, P.G., Boesch C.,Becker, K., Leendertz, F.H., Peters, G. 2012 Highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from African hon-human primates. Environmental Microbiology Reports (2012) 4(1), 141–146 (pdf)

Skinner, M.F., Skinner, M.M., Boesch, C. Developmental defects of the dental crown in chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte D'Ivoire: coronal waisting. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149: 272-282 (pdf)

Vallo, P., Petrželková, K. J., Profousová, I., Petrášová, J., Pomajbíková, K., Leendertz, F., Hashimoto, C., Simmons, N., Babweteera, F., Machanda, Z., Piel, A., Robbins, A. M., Boesch, C., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Sommer, V., Furuichi, T., Fujita, S., Matsuzawa, T., Kaur, T., Huffman, M. A., & Modrý, D. (2012). Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees./American Journal of Physical Anthropology,/ /148/(4), 525-533. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22100. (pdf)


Arandjelovic, M., Head, J., Rabanal, L., Schubert, G., Mettke, E., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. and Vigilant, L. 2011. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees. PLos One 6(3): e14761. (pdf)

Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., Diarrassouba, A., N’Goran, P. and Boesch, C. 2011. Long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested species. Biology Letters, 7 (5) 723-726. (pdf)

Gomes, C., and Boesch, C. 2011. Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol 65, No. 11, 2183-2196. (pdf)

Head, J., Boesch, C., Makaga, L., and Robbins, M.M. (2011).  Sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon: Dietary composition, seasonal changes and inter-site comparisons. International Journal of Primatology 32:755-775. (pdf)

Kouakou, C., Boesch, C. and Kuehl, H. 2011. Identifying hotspots of chimpanzee group activitiy from transect surveys in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 27: 621-630. (pdf)

Lazenby, R., Skinner, M., Hublin, J. and Boesch, C. 2011. Metacarpal trabecular architecture in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): evidence for locomotion and tool-use? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 215-225. (pdf)

Leendertz, SA., Locatelli, S., Boesch, C., Kücherer, C., Formenty, P., Liegeois, F., Ayouba, A., Peeters, M., Leendertz, F. 2011 No evidence for transmission of SIVwrc from western red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) to wild west African chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) despite high exposure through hunting. BMC Microbiology 2011, 11:24 (pdf)

Schubert, G., Stoneking, C., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Eckhardt, N., Hohmann, G., Langergraber, K., Lukas, D. and Vigilant, L. 2011. Male-mediated gene flow in patrilocal primates. PLos One 6(7): e21514. (pdf)

Smith, H. and Boesch, C. 2011. Mortality and the magnitude of the “wild effect” in chimpanzee tooth emergence. Journal of Human Evolution, 60: 34-46.

Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Amsini, F., Arranz, L., Asamoah, A., Babafemi, O., Barakabuye, N., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Davenport, T. R., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ellis, C., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Greengrass, E., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Holbech, L. H., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I., Kumpel, N., Maisels, F., Marshall, P., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dogmo, Z., Okon, D. T., Plumptre, A., Rundus, A., Sunderland-Groves, J., Todd, A., Warren, Y., Mundry, R., Boesch, C., & Kuehl, H. S. (2011). Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk./Conservation Letters,/ /5/(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00211.x. (pdf)

Wevers, D., Metzger, S., Babweteera, F., Bieberbach, M., Boesch, C., Cameron, K., Couacy-Hymann, E., Cranfield, M., Gray, M., Harris, L. A., Head, J., Jeffery, K., Knauf, S., Lankester, F., Leendertz, S. A. J., Lonsdorf, E., Mugisha, L., Nitsche, A., Reed, P., Robbins, M., Travis, D. A., Zommers, Z., Leendertz, F. H., & Ehlers, B. (2011). Novel Adenoviruses in Wild Primates: a High Level of Genetic Diversity and Evidence of Zoonotic Transmissions./Journal of Virology,/ /85/(20), 10774-10784. doi:10.1128/JVI.00810-11. (pdf)


Arandjelovic, M, Head, J, Boesch, C, Kuehl, HS, Robbins, MM, Maisels, F, Vigilant. (2010). Effective non-invasive genetic monitoring of multiple wild western gorilla groups. Biological Conservation, 1443:1780-1791. (pdf)

Boesch, C. (2010). Open peer commentary for BBS on Henrich, J. et al.. Away from Ethnocentrism and Anthropocentrism: Towards a scientific understanding of what makes us human”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33: 86-87. (pdf)

Boesch, C., Bolé, C., Eckkhardt, N., Boesch, H. (2010). Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption. PlosOne Vol. 5/1/e8901. (pdf)

Junglen, S., Hedemann, C., Ellerbrok, H., Pauli, G., Boesch, C. and Leendertz, F. 2010. Diversity of STLV-1 strains in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from Côte d’Ivoire. Virus Research, 150: 143-147.

Klee, S., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Nattermann, H. Brüggemann, H., Dupke, S., Wollherr, A., Franz, T., Pauli, G., Appel, B., Liebl, W., Couacy-Hymann, E., Boesch, C., Meyer, F., Leendertz, F., Ellerbrok, H., Gottschalk, G., Grunow, G., and Liesegang, H. 2010. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cerues and B. anthracis virulence plasmids. PLoS One 5(7): e10986. (pdf)

Koendgen, S, Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. (2010). Noninvasive monitoring of respiratory viruses in Wild Chimpanzees. EcoHealth online, doi 10.1007/s10393-010-0340-z. (pdf)

Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Nishida T, Pusey A, Reynolds V, Schubert G, Wrangham RW, Wroblewski E, Vigilant L (2010) Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (pdf)

Leendertz, S.A., Metzger, S., Skjerve, E., Deschner, T., Boesch, C., Riedel, J., Leendertz, F. (2010). A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick paramenters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d´Ivoire. American Journal of Primatology, 71:1-10. (pdf)

Newton-Fisher NE, Emery Thompson M, Reynolds V, Boesch C, Vigilant L (2010) Paternity and social rank in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 417-428.

Rabanal, L.I., Kuehl, H.S., Mundry, R., Robbins, M.M., Boesch, C. (2010). Oil prospecting and its impact on large rainforest mammals in Loango National Park, Gabon. Biological Conservation, 143: 1017-1024. (pdf)

Riedel, J., Franz, M., Boesch, C.(2010). How feeding competition determines femal chimpanzees gregariousness and ranging in the Tai National Park, Côte d´Ivoire. Amercian Journal of Primatology 71:1-9. (pdf)

Smith, T.M., Smith, B.H., Reid, D.J., Siedel, H., Vigilant, L., Hublin, JJ, Boesch, C. (2010) Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited. Journal of Human Evolution, 58: 363-373. (pdf)

Stumpf, R.M., Boesch, C. (2010) Male agression and sexual coercion in wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Animal Behaviour 79: 333-342. (pdf)

Wevers, D., Leendertz, F., Scuda, N., Boesch, C., Robbins, M., Head, J., Ludwig, C., Kühn, J. and Ehlers, B. 2010. A novel adenovirus of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Vorology Journal, 7: 303-311.

Wittig RM, Boesch C (2010): Receiving Post-Conflict Affiliation from the Enemy’s Friend Reconciles Former Opponents. PLoS ONE 5(11): e13995. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013995 (pdf)


Boesch, C, Head, J, & Robbins, MM. (2009). Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution 56: 560-569. (pdf)

Borchers, C., Riedel, J., Boesch, C., Breuer, T. (2009). Deux programmes d’éducation environnementale pour la conservation des grands singes africains: Club Ebobo et Club P.A.N.. Revue de primatologie: [En ligne], 1. (pdf)

Ehlers, B., Spieß, K., Leendertz, F., Peeters, M., Boesch, C., Gatherer, D. and McGeoch, D. (2009). Lymphocryptovirus phylogeny and the origins of Epstein-Barr virus. Journal of General Virology, 10.1099/vir.0.017251-0.

Gomes, C. M. and C. Boesch (2009). Wild Chimpanzees Exchange Meat for Sex on a Long-Term Basis.  PLoS ONE 4, 4, Seq. No.: e5116. (pdf)

Gomes, C. M., R. Mundry and C. Boesch (2009). Long-term reciprocation of grooming in wild West African chimpanzees.  Proccedings of the Reoyal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 276, 1657: 699-706. (pdf)

Herbinger, I., S. Papworth, C. Boesch and K. Zuberbühler (2009). Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: a playback study.  Animal Behaviour 78, 6: 1389-1396. (pdf)

Jensen, S. A., R. Mundry, C. L. Nunn, C. Boesch and F. H. Leendertz (2009). Non-invasive Body Temperature Measurement of Wild Chimpanzees Using Fecal Temperature Decline.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45, 2: 542-546.

Kouakou, C. Y., C. Boesch and H. Kühl (2009). Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Taï National Park. American Journal of Primatology 71, 6: 71-6.

Kuehl, H. S., C. Nzeingui, S. Le Duc Yeno, B. Huijbregts, C. Boesch and P. D. Walsh (2009). Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes.  Biological Conservation 142, 7: 1500-1506. (pdf)

Leendertz FH, Deckers M, Schempp W, Lankester F, Boesch C, Hohmann G, Mugisha L, Dolan A, Derek G, McGoech DJ, Ehlers B 2009. Novel cytomegaloviruses in free-ranging and captive great apes: phylogenetic evidence for bidirectional horizontal transmission. Journal of General Virology, 90, 2386-2394. (pdf)

Leendertz, F. H., M. Deckers, W. Schempp, F. Lankester, C. Boesch, L. Mugisha, A. Dolan, D. Gatherer, D. J. McGeoch and B. Ehlers (2009). Novel cytomegaloviruses in free-ranging and captive great apes : phylogenetic evidence for bidirectional horizontal transmission.  Journal of General Virology 90, 10: 2386-2394.

Lehmann, J. and C. Boesch (2009). Sociality of the dispersing sex: the nature of social bonds in West African female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Behaviour 77, 2: 377-387. (pdf)

Morozov, V. A., F. H. Leendertz, S. Junglen, C. Boesch, G. Pauli and H. Ellerbrok (2009). Frequent foamy virus infection in free-living chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire).  Journal of General Virology 90: 500-506. (pdf)

Neel, C., Etienne, L., Li, Y., Takehisa, J., Rudicell, R., Ndong, I., Moudindo, J., Mebenga, A., Esteban, A., Van Heuverswyn, F., Liegeois, F., Kranzusch, P., Walsh, P., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Ndjango, J., Plantier, J.-C., Locatelli, S., Gonder, M., Leendertz, F., Boesch, C., Todd, A., Delaporte, E., Ngole, E., Hahn, B. and Peeters, M. (2009). Molecular epidemiology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in wild-living gorillas. Journal of Virology: JVI.021 29-09vl.

N'Guessan, A. K., S. Ortmann and C. Boesch (2009). Daily Energy Balance and Protein Gain Among Pan troglodytes verus in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire.  International Journal of Primatology 30, 3: 481-496. (pdf)

Normand, E. and C. Boesch (2009). Sophisticated Euclidean maps in forest chimpanzees.  Animal Behaviour 77, 5: 1195-1201. (pdf)

Normand, E., S. Dagui Ban and C. Boesch (2009). Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees.  Animal Cognition 12, 6: 797-807. (pdf)

Nunn, C. L., P. H. Thrall, K. Bartz, T. Dasgupta and C. Boesch (2009). Do transmission mechanisms or social systems drive cultural dynamics in socially structured populations?.  Animal Behaviour 77, 6: 1515-1524. (pdf)

Rich, S. M., F. H. Leendertz, G. Xu, M. LeBreton, C. F. Djoko, M. N. Aminake, E. E. Takang, J. L. D. Diffo, B. L. Pike, B. R. Rosenthal, P. Formenty, C. Boesch, F. J. Ayala and N. D. Wolfe (2009). The origin of malignant malaria.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 35: 14902-14907.

Savini, T., C. Boesch and U. H. Reichard (2009).Varying Ecological Quality Influences the Probability of Polyandry in White-handed Gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Thailand.  Biotropica 41, 4: 503-513.

Skinner, M. M., P. Gunz, B. A. Wood, C. Boesch and J.-J. Hublin (2009). Discrimination of extant Pan species and subspecies using the enamel-dentine junction morphology of lower molars.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140, 2: 234-243.

Stumpf, R. and Boesch, C. 2009. Male aggression and sexual coercion in wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Animal Behaviour, doi:10.1016/


Aureli, F., Schaffner, C., Boesch, C., Bearder, S., Call, J., Chapmann, C., Connor, R., Fiore, A., Dunbar, R., Henzi, P., Holekamp, K., Korstjens, A., Layton, R., Lee, P., Lehmann, J., Manson, J., Fernandez, G.,  Strier, K., van Schaik, C. 2008. Fission-fusion dynamics. Current Anthropology, Vol 49, No. 4. (pdf)

Barelli, C., Boesch, C. Heistermann, and Reichard, U. (2008). Female white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) lead group movements and have priority of access to food resources. Behaviour, 145: 965-981. (pdf)

Barelli, C., Heistermann, M., Boesch, C., Reichard, U. H. (2008). "Mating patterns and sexual swellings in pair-living and multimale groups of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar)." Animal Behaviour, 75: 991-1001. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2008. Culture in evolution: towards an integration of chimpanzee and human culture. In Explaining Culture Scientifically (Ed. M. Brown). Washington: University of Washington Press.

Boesch, C. 2008. Taking development and ecology seriously when comparing cognition: Reply to Tomasello and Call (2008). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122(4): 453-455. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2008. Why do chimpanzees die in the forest? The challenges of understanding and controlling for wild ape health. American Journal of primatology, 70: 722-726. (pdf)

Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Wittig, R., Moebius, Y. and Normand, E. (2008). Intergroup conflicts among chimpanzees in Taï National Park: lethal violence and the female perspective. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 519-532. (pdf)

Boesch, C., Gnakouri, C., Marques, L., Nohon, G., Herbinger, I., Lauginie, F., Boesch, H., Kouamé, S., Traoré M. and Akindes, F. 2008. Chimpanzee conservation and theatre: a case study of an awareness project around the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. In Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study (Eds, Stoinski, T., Steklis, D. and Mehlman, P.). pp.128-135. New York: Springer Science and Business Media.

Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., N´Goran, P., Boesch, C. (2008). "Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Côte d’Ivoire." Current Biology, 18: R903-R904. (pdf)

Hauser, B.,Deschner, T., Boesch, C. (2008). "Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 23 endogenous steroids in small quantities of primate urine." J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 862: 100-12.

Hauser, B. Schulz, D. Boesch, C. & Deschner, T. (2008) Measuring urinary testosterone levels of the great apes—Problems with enzymatic hydrolysis using Helix pomatia juice. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 158: 77-86. (pdf)

Kondgen, S., Kuhl, H., N'Goran P, K., Walsh, P. D., Schenk, S., Ernst, N., Biek, R., Formenty, P., Matz-Rensing, K., Schweiger, B., Junglen, S., Ellerbrok, H., Nitsche, A., Briese, T., Lipkin, W. I., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. H. (2008). "Pandemic Human Viruses Cause Decline of Endangered Great Apes." Curr Biol., 8: 260-264. (pdf)

Kuehl, H., Elzner, C., Moebius, Y., Boesch, C. and Walsh, P. 2008. The price of play: self-organized infant mortality cycles in chimpanzees. PLoS One, 3(6): e2440. (pdf)

Leendertz, F. H., Zirkel, F., Couacy-Hymann, E., Ellerbrok, H., Morozov, V. A., Pauli, G., Hedemann, C., Formenty, P., Jensen, S. A., Boesch, C., Junglen, S. et al. (2008). "Interspecies transmission of simian foamy virus in a natural predator-prey system." J Virol 82: 7741-7744. (pdf)

Lehmann, J. and Boesch, C. (2008). Sex differences in chimpanzee sociality. International Journal of Primatology 29: 65-81. (pdf)

Möbius, Y., Boesch, C., Koops, K., Matsuzawa, T., Humle, T. (2008). "Cultural differences in army ant predation by West African chimpanzees? A comparative study of microecological variables." Animal Behaviour 76: 37-45. (pdf)

Savini, T., Boesch, C., Reichard, U. H. (2008). "Home-range characteristics and the influence of seasonality on female reproduction in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand." Am J Phys Anthropol 135: 1-12. (pdf)

Skinner, M. M., Wood, B. A., Boesch, C., Olejniczak, A. J., Rosas, A., Smith, T. M., Hublin, J. J. (2008). "Dental trait expression at the enamel-dentine junction of lower molars in extant and fossil hominoids." J Hum Evol 54: 173-86. (pdf)

Zihlman, A. L., Stahl, D. Boesch, C. et al. (2008). "Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire." Am J Phys Anthropol 135: 34-41. (pdf)


Barelli Claudia, Heistermann Michael, Boesch Christophe & Reichard Ulrich (2007) Sexual swellings in wild white-handed gibbon females (Hylobates lar) indicate the probability of ovulation. Hormones and Behavior, 51: 221-230. (pdf)

Bertolani, P. and Boesch, C. (2007). Habituation of Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the South Group at Taï forest, Côte d’Ivoire: Empirical Measure of Progress. Folia Primatologica, 79: 162-171. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2007 What Makes Us Human (Homo sapiens)? The Challenge of Cognitive Cross-Species Comparison. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121: 227–240. (pdf)

Boesch C, Head J, Tagg N, Arandjelovic M, Vigilant L, Robbins M 2007. Fatal chimpanzee attack in Loango National Park, Gabon: Observational and genetic evidence. International Journal of Primatology. 28: 1025-1034. (pdf)

Breuer, T., Robbins, M.M., Boesch, C. (2007) Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 134: 369-382. (pdf)

Chi, F., Leider, M., Leendertz, F., Bergmann, C., Boesch, C., Schenk, S., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H., Hakenbeck, R. (2007). New Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones in Deceased Wild Chimpanzees. J. Bacteriology 189: 6085–6088. (pdf)

Deschner, T. and Boesch, C. 2007. Can the patterns of sexual swelling cycles in female Taï chimpanzees be explained by the “cost-of-sexual attraction” hypothesis? International Journal of Primatology. (pdf)

Kuehl, Hjalmar S., Liz Williamson, Chrickette Sanz, David Morgan and Christophe Boesch (2007). Launch of A.P.E.S. database. Gorilla Journal 34: 20-21

Mercader, J., Barton, H., Gillespie, J., Harris, J., Kuhn, S., Tyler, R., Boesch, C. 2007. 4,00-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology. PNAS vol 104, no. 9, 3043-48 (pdf)


Anderson, D., Nordheim, E. and Boesch, C. 2006. Environmental factors influencing the seasonality of estrus in chimpanzees. Primates, 47: 43-50. (pdf)

Boesch, C., Goné Bi, Z., Anderson, D. and Stahl, D. 2006. Food choice in Taï chimpanzees: Are cultural differences present? In Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates (Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. and Boesch, C., Eds), pp. 365-399. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boesch, C., Kohou, G., Néné, H., and Vigilant, L. 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Taï forest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. (pdf)

Carlson, K., Doran-Sheehy, D., Hunt, K., Nishida, T., Yamanaka, A. and Boesch, C. 2006. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(4): 394-404. (pdf)

Eriksson J, Siedel H, Lukas D, Kayser M, Erler A, Hashimoto C, Hohmann G, Boesch C, Vigilant L (2006) Y-chromosome analysis confirms highly sex-biased dispersal and suggests a low male effective population size in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology, 15(4): 939-949. (pdf)

Klee, S., Ozel, M., Appel, B., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jacob, D., Holland, G., Leendertz, F., Pauli, G., Grunow, R. and Nattermann, H. 2006. Characterisation of Bacillusanthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Côte d’Ivoire and Cameroon. Journal of Bacteriology, 188(15): 5333-5344. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Lankester, F., Guislain, P., Néel, C., Drori, O., Dupain, J., Speede, S., Reed, P., Wolfe, N., Loul, S., Mpoudi-Ngole, V. Peeters, M., Boesch, C., Pauli, G., Ellerbrok, H. and Leroy, E. 2006. Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes. American Journal of Primatology. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Pauli, G., Maetz-Rensing, K., Boardman, W., Nunn, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jensen, S., Junglen, S. and Boesch, C. 2006. Pathogens as drivers of population declines: the importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biological Conservation, 131: 325-337. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Yumlu, S., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Coucy-Hyman, E., Vigilant, L., Junglen, S. and Ellerbrok, H. 2006. A new Bacillus anthracis found in wild chimpanzees and a gorilla from west and central Africa. PLoS Pathogens, 2(1): 1-4. (pdf)

Lehmann, J., Fickenscher, G. and Boesch, C. In press. Kin biased investment in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour. (pdf)

Stumpf, R. and Boesch, C. 2006. The efficiency of female choice in chimpanzees of the Taï forest, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 60: 749-765. (pdf)


Anderson , D., Nordheim, E., Moermond, T., Gone Bi, Z. and Boesch, C. 2005. Factors influencing tree phenology in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Biotropica, 37(4): 631-640. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2005. Joint cooperative hunting among wild chimpanzees: Taking natural observations seriously. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (pdf)

Boesch, C., Boesch, H. and Vigilant, L. 2005. Cooperative hunting in chimpanzees: Kinship or Mutualism? In Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisams and Evolution, (Kappeler, P. and Van Schaik, C., Eds.), 139-159. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Crockford, C. and Boesch, C. 2005. Call combinations in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour. (pdf)

Lehmann, J. and Boesch, C. 2005. Bisexually-bonded ranging in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. (pdf)

Lukas, D., Reynolds, V., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2005. To what extent does living in group mean living with kin? Molecular Ecology, 14(7): 2181-2196. (pdf)

Stumpf, R. and Boesch, C. 2005. Does promiscuous mating preclude female choice? Female sexual strategies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57: 511-524. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 2004. Evolution des Werkzeuggebrauchs und der Kooperation bei schimpanzen. In Sozialisationstheorie Interdisziplinär: Aktuelle Perspektiven (Eds. Geulen, D. And Veith, H.). Der Mensch als soziales und personales Wesen, Band 20. Stuttgart : Lucius and Lucius.

Bradley, B., Doran-Sheehy, D., Lukas, D., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2004. Dispersed male networks in Western gorillas. Current Biology, 14: 510-513. (pdf)

Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Vigilant, L. and Boesch, C. 2004. Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: a case for vocal learning? Ethology, 110: 221-243. (pdf)

Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K. and Boesch, C. 2004. Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior, 46: 204-215. (pdf)

Eriksson, J., Hohmann, G., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2004. Rivers influence the population genetic structure of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology, 13(11): 3425-3435. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Boesch, C., Ellerbrok, H., Rietschel, W., Couacy-Hyman, E. And Pauli, G. 2004. Non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in wild adult chimpanzees of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of General Virology, 85: 3305-3312. (pdf)

Leendertz, F. Boesch, C., Junglen, S., Pauli, G. and Ellerbock, H. 2004. Interspecies transmission of primate T-lymphotropic virus type 1 from red colobus monkeys to chimpanzees in the wild. Journal of Virology.

Leendertz, F., Ellerbock, H. Boesch, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Mätz-Rensing, K., Hakenback, R., Bergmann, C., Abaza, P. Junglen, S., Moebius, Y., Vigilant, L., Formenty, P. and Pauli, G. 2004. Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest. Nature, 430: 451-452. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Junglen, S., Boesch, C., Formenty, P., Couacy-Hymann, E., Courgnaud, V., Pauli, G. and Ellerbock, H. 2004. High variety of different simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Virology, 78(8): 4352-4356. (pdf)

Lehmann, J. and Boesch, C. 2004. To fission or to fusion: effects of community size on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) social organisation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56: 207-216. (pdf)

Nsubuga, A., Robbins, M., Roeder, P., Morin, P., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2004. Factors affecting the amount of genomic DNA extracted from ape faeces and the identification of an improved storage method. Molecular Ecology, 13: 2089-2094. (pdf)

Reichert, K., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K., Boesch, C. and Hohmann, G. 2004. What females tell males about their reproductive status: are morphological and behavioural cues reliable signals of ovulation in Bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology, 108 (7): 583-600. (pdf)

Zihlmann, A., Bolter, D. and Boesch, C. 2004. Wild chimpanzee dentition and its implications for assessing life history in immature hominin fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(29): 10541-10543. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 2003. Cooperation Complexities among Taï chimpanzees. In Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture and Individualized Societies (Eds. de Waal F. and Tyack, P.), pp. 93-110. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Boesch, C. 2003. Is culture a golden barrier between human and chimpanzee? Evolutionary Anthropology, 12: 26-32. (pdf)

Courgnaud, V., Formenty, P., Akoua-Koffi, C., Noé, R., Boesch, C., Delaporte, E. and Peeters, M. 2003. Partial molecular characterisation of two simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African colobids: SIVwrc from Western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius) and SIVolc from olive colobus (Procolobus verus). Journal of Virology, 77(1): 744-748. (pdf)

Crockford, C. and Boesch, C. 2003. Context-specific calls in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus: analysis of barks. Animal Behaviour, 66: 115-125. (pdf)

Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K. and Boesch, C. 2003. Timing and probability of ovulation in relation to sex skin swelling in wild West African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus . Animal Behaviour, 66: 551-560. (pdf)

Ehlers, B., Ochs, A., Leendertz, F., Goltz, M., Boesch, C., and Mätz-Rensing, K. 2003. Novel simian homologues of Epstein-Barr virus. Journal of Virology, 77(19): 10695-10699. (pdf)

Leendertz, F., Boesch, C., Junglen, S., Pauli, G. and Ellerbock, H. 2003. Characterisation of a new Simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a wild living chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) from Ivory Coast: Evidence for a new STLV-1 group? Sequence note. AIDS Research on Human Retroviruses, 19: 255-258. (pdf)

Lehmann, J. and Boesch, C. 2003. Social influences on ranging patterns among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioural Ecology, 14(5): 642-649. (pdf)

Wittig, R. and Boesch, C. 2003. “Decision-making” in conflicts of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): an extension of the Relational Model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 54: 491-504. (pdf)

Wittig, R. and Boesch, C. 2003. Food competition and linear dominance hierarchy among female Pan troglodytes verus of the Taï National Park. International Journal of Primatology, 24(4): 847-867. (pdf)

Wittig, R. and Boesch, C. 2003. The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behaviour, 140: 1527-1559. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 2002. Cooperative hunting roles among Taï chimpanzees. Human Nature, 13 (1): 27-46. (pdf)

Mercader, J., Panger, M. and Boesch, C. 2002. A chimpanzee/human occupation sequence in the archeological record of Taï Côte d’Ivoire. Abstract IPC Congress, Beijing.

Mercader, J., Panger, M. and Boesch, C. 2002. Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforest. Science, 296: 1452-1455. (pdf)

Santiago, M., Rodenburg, C., Kamenya, S., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Gao, F., Bailes, E., Meleth, S., Soong, S., Kilby, M., Moldoveanu, Z., Fahey, B., Muller, M., Ayouba, A., Nerrienet, E., McClure, H., Heeney, J., Pusey, A., Collins, A., Boesch, C., Wrangham, R., Goodall, J., Sharp, P., Shaw, G., and Hahn, B. 2002. Noninvasive detection and molecular identification of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild-living chimpanzees. Science, 295: 465. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 2001. Sacrileges are welcome in sciences! Opening a discussion about animal culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(2): 327-328. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 2001. Chimpanzee hunters: Chaos or cooperation in the forest? In Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology (Ed. L. Dugatkin). Pp. 453-465. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Boesch, C. 2001. Le propre de l'Homme est-il humain? In Les Origines de l'Homme (Eds. Y. Coppens and Picq, P.). pp. 170-199. Paris: Fayard.

Bradley, B., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2001. Identification and redesign of human microsatellite markers for genotyping wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) DNA from faeces. Conservation Genetics, 1: 289-292. (pdf)

Herbinger, I., Boesch, C. and Rothe, H. 2001. Territory characteristics among three neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. International Journal of Primatology, 32(2): 143-167. (pdf)

Hill, K., Boesch, C., Goodall, J., Pusey, A., Williams, J. and Wrangham, R. 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 40: 437-450. (pdf)

Morin, P., Chambers, K., Boesch, C. and Vigilant, L. 2001. Quantitative PCR analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatelitte genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Molecular Ecology, 10: 1835-1844. (pdf)

Vigilant, L., Hofreiter, M., Siedel, H. and Boesch, C. 2001. Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98 (23): 12890-12895. (pdf)

Whiten, A. and Boesch, C. 2001. The cultures of chimpanzees. Scientific American, 284: 48-55. (pdf)

Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., Tutin, C., Wrangham, R. and Boesch, C. 2001. Charting cultural variations in chimpanzee. Behaviour, 138: 1489-1525. (pdf)


Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Dind, F., Donati, F., Steiner, C., Wyers, M. and Le Guenno, B. 1999. Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Coˆte d’Ivoire Journal of Infectious Diseases 179 (Suppl 1): 120-129. (pdf)

Gagneux, P., Boesch, C. and Woodruff, D. 1999. Female reproductive strategies, paternity, and community structure in wild West African chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 57: 19-32. (pdf)

Gagneux, P., Wills, C., Gerloff, U., Tautz, D., Morin, P., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ryder, O. and Woodruff, D. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 96: 5077-5082. (pdf)

Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Yugiyama, Y., Tutin, C., Wrangham, R., Boesch, C. 1999. Culture s in chimpanzees. Nature 399: 682-685. (pdf)

Wyers, M., Formenty, P., Cherel, Y., Guigand, L., Boesch, C. and Le Guenno, B. 1999. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with Ebola filovirus (CI-strain) in a naturally infected chimpanzee. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179 (Suppl 1): 54-59. (pdf)


Arcadi, C., Robert, D. and Boesch, C. 1998. Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates, 39(4): 505-518. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 1998. Adoption, Social signals, Dominance. In The Encyclopedia of Ecology and Environmental Management (Ed. P. Calow). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Boesch, C. and Tomasello, M. 1998. Chimpanzee and human cultures. Current Anthropology, 39(5): 591-614. (pdf)

Le Guenno, B., Formenty, P. and Boesch, C. 1998. Ebola virus outbreaks in the Ivory Coast and Liberia, 1994-1995. In Marburg and Ebola Viruses (Ed. Klenk, H.-D.). pp: 77-84. Berlin: Springer Verlag.


Boesch, C. 1997. Evidence for dominant mothers investing more in sons among wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 54: 811-815. (pdf)

Braga , J. and Boesch, C. 1997. Further data about venous channels in South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Journal of Human Evolution, 33(4): 423-447. (pdf)

Gagneux, P. Boesch, C. and Woodruff, D. 1997. Microsatellite scoring errors associated with non-invasive genotyping based on nuclear DNA amplified from shed hair. Molecular Ecology, 6: 861-868. (pdf)

Gagneux, P., Woodruff, D. and Boesch, C. 1997. Furtive mating in female chimpanzees. Nature 387: 358-359. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 1996. Social grouping in Taï chimpanzees. In Great Apes Societies (Eds. W. McGrew., L. Marchant and T. Nishida), pp. 101-113. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boesch, C. 1996. Three approaches for assessing chimpanzee culture. In Reaching into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes (Eds. Russon, A. E., Bard, K. and Parker, S.T.). pp. 404-429. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boesch, C. 1996. The emergence of cultures among wild chimpanzees. In Evolution of Social Behaviour Patterns in Primates and Man (Eds. Runciman W. G., Maynard-Smith, J. and R. I. M. Dunbar). pp. 251-268. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy.

Boesch, C. 1996. The question of culture. News and Views. Nature 379: 207-208. (pdf)

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1996. Rain forest chimpanzees: the human connection. Nature and Resources, 32(1): 26-32.

Boesch-Achermann, H. and Boesch, C. 1996. Kulturwesen, Panda Magazin 2/96, 26-31.


Boesch, C. 1995. Innovation in wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 16(1): 1-16. (pdf)

Le Guenno, B., Formenty, P., M. Wyers, and Boesch, C. 1995. Isolation and partial characterization of a new Ebola strain. The Lancet 345: 1271-1274. (pdf)

Marchesi, P. Marchesi, N., Fruth, B. and Boesch, C. 1995. Census and distribution of chimpanzees in Côte d'Ivoire. Primates 36(4): 591-607. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 1994. Hunting strategies of Gombe and Taï chimpanzees. In: Chimpanzee Cultures (R. Wrangham, W. McGrew, F. de Waal and P. Heltne, Eds), pp. 77-91. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Boesch, C. 1994. Chimpanzees - red colobus: A predator-prey system. Animal Behaviour 47(5): 1135-1148. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 1994. Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 48(3): 653-667. (pdf)

Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. 1994. Technique et culture chez les chimpanzés sauvages. Technique et Cultures 23-24: 1-27.

Boesch, C., Esser, J., Allefort, P., Couturier, G. and Merz, G. 1994. La Faune. In Le Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire. Tropenbos Series 8, 72-93.

Boesch-Acherman, H. and Boesch, C. 1994. The Taï chimpanzee project in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Pan Africa News 1(1): 5-7. (pdf)

Boesch, C. Marchesi, P., Marchesi, N., Fruth, B., Joulian, F. 1994. Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behaviour? Journal of Human Evolution 26: 325-338. (pdf)

Boesch-Acherman, H. and Boesch, C. 1994. Hominisation in the rainforest: The chimpanzee's piece to the puzzle. Evolutionary Anthropology 3(1): 9-16. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 1993. Towards a new image of culture in wild chimpanzees? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(3): 514-515.

Boesch, C. 1993. Aspects of transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees. In Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, (Eds. K. Gibson and T. Imgold), pp. 171-183. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1993. Different hand postures for pounding nuts with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. In: Hands of the Primates (Eds. H. Preuschoft and D. Chivers), pp. 31-43. Wien: Springer-Verlag.

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1993. Diversity of tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. In Use of Tools in Human and Non-Human Primates (Eds. A. Berthelet and J. Chavaillon), pp. 158-168. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boesch-Acherman, H. and Boesch, C. 1993. Tool use in wild chimpanzees: New light from Dark forests. Current Directions in Psychological Science 18-21. (pdf)

Günther, M. and Boesch, C. 1993. Energetic cost of nut-cracking behavior in wild chimpanzees. In: Hands of the Primates (Eds. H. Preuschoft and D. Chivers), pp. 109-129. Wien: Springer-Verlag.


Boesch, C. 1992. New elements about a theory of mind in wild chimpanzees. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15(1): 149. (pdf)

Boesch-Achermann, H. and Boesch, C. 1992. Forest close-ups. BBC Wildlife Magazine 10(1): 14-20.

Boesch-Achermann, H. and Boesch, C. 1992. Verblüffend menschlich: Westafrikas Schimpansen. Das Tier 5: 8-17.


Boesch, C. 1991. Handedness in wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 12(6): 541-558. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 1991. Symbolic communication in wild chimpanzees? Human Evolution 6 (1): 81-90. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 1991. Teaching in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 41(3): 530-532. (pdf)

Boesch, C. 1991. The effects of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behaviour, 117 (3-4): 220-242. (pdf)

Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. 1991. Dim forest, bright chimps. Natural History 9/91 (50-57).

Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. 1991. Les chimpanzés et l'outil. La Recherche, 233: 724-731.


Boesch, C. 1990. First hunters of the forest. New Scientist, 19 May, 38-41. (pdf)

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1990. Adventures in Eating. BBC Wildlife Magazine 8(10): 668-672.

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1990. Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54: 86-99. (pdf)


Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1989. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 78: 547-573. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 1988. West African Oasis. WWF Report 8/9/88.


Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1984. Mental map in wild chimpanzees: An analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking. Primates 25: 160-170. (pdf)

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1984. Possible causes of sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 13: 415-440. (pdf)

Guillaum et, J.L. and Boesch, C. 1984. Le parc national et la protection de la nature. In: Recherches et aménagement en milieu forestier tropical humide: Le Projet Tai de Côte d'Ivoire. Notes techniques du MAB 15, UNESCO: Paris.


Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1983. Optimisation of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 83: 256-286. (pdf)


Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1981. Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report. Journal of Human Evolution. 10: 585-593. (pdf)


Boesch, C. 1978. Nouvelles observations sur les chimpanzés de la forêt de Taï ( Côte d'Ivoire). Terre et Vie 32: 195-201.


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