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Journal Articles & Book Chapters


Fruth, B., Williamson, E.A. & M. Richardson. In press. Bonobo Pan paniscus. In: Handbook of the Mammals of the World Volume 3: Primates. R.A. Mittermeier & D.E. Wilson (eds.). Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

Liebs V, Bikandu B, Lassa L, Lukoki F, Schareika N & B. Fruth. In press. Signifying competence: Urban herbalists seeking affirmation in Kinshasa In: Obrist B, Macamo E, Arlt V, eds. Living the City. Zürich: Lit Verlag.

Beaune D., Bretagnolle F., Bollache L., Hohmann G., Surbeck M., Bourson C. & B. Fruth. in press. The bonobo-Dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism. American Journal of Primatology.

Beaune D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., Surbeck, M. & B. Fruth. 2013. Seed dispersal strategies and the threat of defaunation in a Congo forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 225-238. [pdf]



Beaune D., Bollache L., Fruth B. & F. Bretagnolle. 2012. Bush pig (Potamochoerus porcus) seed predation of bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) and other plant species in Democratic Republic of Congo. African Journal of Ecology 50:509-512. [pdf]

Beaune D., Bollache L., Bretagnolle F. & B. Fruth. 2012. Dung beetles are critical in preventing post-dispersal seed removal by rodents in Congo rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28:507-510. [pdf]

Fruth, B. 2012. La Convention sur la Diversité Biologique en République démocratique du Congo : Mise en oeuvre du projet «La Cuvette Centrale comme réservoir de plantes médicinales». Ethnopharmacologia 48: 27-37. [pdf]

Muganza DM, Fruth B, Lami JN, Mesia GK, Kambu OK, Tona GL, Kanyanga RC, Cos P, Maes L, Apers S & L Pieters. 2012. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of 33 ethonopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141(1):301-308.

Laurance WF, Carolina Useche D, Rendeiro J, Kalka M, Bradshaw CJA, Sloan SP, Laurance SG, Campbell M, Abernethy K, Alvarez P et al. 2012. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489(7415): 290-294. [pdf]



Fruth B. 2011. Die CBD in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo: Das Projekt „Die Cuvette Centrale als Heilpflanzenreservoir“ im Umsetzungsprozess. In: Das Übereinkommen über die Biologische Vielfalt (CBD) – ein Einstieg für Wissenschaftler; ed. Paulsch A. & C. Paulsch; Ibn Schriftenreihe Band 01: 134-146. [pdf]

Fruth, B., Mato, B., Lukoki, F., J.Lejoly & M. Muganza. 2011. Care for health and body: An ethnobotanical approach to Nkundo plant use (Cuvette Centrale, DRC) with focus on the significance of indigenous knowledge for the human skin. Curare 34(4):261-281. [pdf]

Fruth. B. 2011. The CBD in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): The project "The Cuvette Centrale as a reservoir of medicinal plants” in the process of implementation. Curare 34(1+2): 51-62. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2011. Is blood thicker than water? In: Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field; ed. M.M Robbins & Ch. Boesch. University of California Press, USA. p 61-76. [pdf]

Oelze V.M., Fuller B., Fruth B., Surbeck M., Hublin JJ., Richards M.P. & G. Hohmann.. 2011. Exploring the contribution and significance of animal protein in the diet of bonobos by stable isotope ratio analysis of hair. PNAS 108(24): 9792-7. [pdf]



Fruth B., Mato B. & M. Muganza. 2010.  Nkundo plant use (Cuvette Centrale, DRC) with a focus on indigenous knowledge and the application of aphrodisiacs. In: Building bridges between anthropology, medicine and Human ethology. Eds: Brüne M., Salter F. and W.C. McGrew. Bochum: The University Press: 211-226. [pdf]



Fruth, B. 2008. D.R. Kongo: Erhaltung der Pflanzendiversität – Das Wissen der Alten. Afrika-Post 3: 16-21. [pdf]

Fruth, B. 2008. Schützenswerte Artenvielfalt Regenwald. Fächerblatt (Mitarbeiterzeitung der Unternehmensgruppe Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Thema: Forschung & Verantwortung) Nr.1: 7.

Fruth, B., Benishay, J.M., Bila-Isia, I., Coxe, S., Dupain, J., Furuichi, T., Hart, J., Hart, T., Hashimoto, C., Hohmann, G., Hurley, M., Ilambu, O., Mulavwa, M., Ndunda, M., Omasombo, V., Reinartz, G., Scherlis, J., Steel, L. & Thompson, J. 2008. Pan paniscus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Version 2012.2. <>. Downloaded on 03 December 2012.

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2008. Records on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, DRC. Folia primatologica 79, 103-110. [pdf]

Mohneke M. & B. Fruth. 2008. Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Density Estimation in the SW-Salonga National Park, DRC: Common Methodology Revisited. In: The bonobos: behavior, ecology, and conservation, ed. Furuichi T & J. Thompson; Springer. Pp. 151-166. [pdf]



McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Beuerlein MM, Vrancken D., Fruth B. & G. Hohmann. 2007. Prospects for bonobo insectivory: Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology: 28(6). Pgs: 1237-1252 [pdf]



D’Amour, D.E., Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2006. Evidence of leopard predation on bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica 77(3): 212-217. [pdf]

Fruth B. & M. Muganza. 2006. Traditional Use of Wild Rainforest Plants by the Nkundo, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Proceedings of the IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB 2005): 471-473. [pdf]

Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 2006. Social grease for females? Same-sex genital contacts in wild bonobos In: Homosexual Behaviour in Animals, ed. P. Vasey & V. Sommer; Oxford University Press. Pp. 294-315. [pdf]

Fruth, B.I., Hohmann, G., Beuerlein, M.M. & W.C. McGrew. 2006. Grooming hand clasp by bonobos of Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pan Africa News 13(1): 6-8 [pdf]



Boubli JP, Eriksson J., Wich S., Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2004. Mesoscale transect sampling of trees in the Lomako–Yekokora interfluvium Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 2399-2417. [pdf]



Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2003. Lui Kotal - A new site for field research on bonobos in the Salonga National Park. Pan Africa News 10(2): 25-27. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth.2003. Intra- and inter-sexual aggression by bonobos in the context of mating. Behaviour, 140 (11-12):1389 – 1413. [pdf]

Hohmann G. & B. Fruth. 2003: Culture in bonobos? Inter-specific similarities and intra-specific variation in behaviour. Current Anthropology, 44(4): 563-571 [pdf]



Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 2002. How bonobos handle hunts and harvests: Why share food? In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann & L.F. Marchant; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 231-276. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2002. Dynamics in social organization of bonobos (Pan paniscus). In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann & L.F. Marchant; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 138-150. [pdf]



Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 2000. Use and proximate function of genital contacts among female bonobos (Pan paniscus). Animal Behaviour 60: 107-120. [pdf]



Fruth, B., Hohmann, G. 1999. Frauenzirkel auf Erfolgskurs. Max Planck Forschung 1: 14-23. [pdf]

Fruth, B., Hohmann, G. & W.C. McGrew. 1999. The Pan Species, in: The Nonhuman Primates, eds. P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes; Mayfield Publishing Company. Pp. 64-72. [pdf]

Gagneux P., Wills C., Gerloff U., Tautz D., Morin P., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ryder O., & D. Woodruff. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 (9): 5077-5082. [pdf]

Gerloff, U., Hartung, B., Fruth B., Hohmann, G., & D. Tautz. 1999. Intra-community relationships, dispersal pattern and control of paternity in a wild living community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analyses of faecal samples. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 266: 1189-1195. [pdf]

Hohmann, G., Gerloff, U., Tautz, D. & B. Fruth.1999. Social bonds and genetic ties: kinship, association and affiliation in a community of bonobos (Pan paniscus), Behaviour 136 (9): 1219-1235. [pdf]



Fruth, B. & W.C. McGrew. 1998. Resting and Nesting in Primates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity. American Journal of Primatology 46: 3-5.

Fruth, B. 1998: Invited comment on "The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: Empirical evidence and shifting assumptions" by Craig B. Stanford. Current Anthropology 39: 408-409. [pdf]

McGrew, W.C. & B. Fruth (editors). 1998. Nesting and Resting in Primates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity; Wiley-Liss.



Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 1996. Nest Building in the Great Apes: The Great Leap Foreward? in: Great Ape Societies. ed. W.C. McGrew, L. Marchant and T. Nishida. Cambridge University Press, NY. Pp. 225-240. [pdf]

Fruth, B. & W.C. McGrew. 1996. Invited comment on "Meat Eating, Sociality and Home Bases" by Rose, L. & F. Marshall. Current Anthropology, 37, 324-325. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 1996. Food sharing and status in unprovisioned bonobos (Pan paniscus): preliminary results. in: Food and The Status Quest.ed. P. Wiessner and W. Schiefenhövel. Harvard: Marion Berghahn Press. Pp. 47-67. [pdf]



Berle, A., Fruth, B. & L. Van Elsacker. 1995. Nestbuilding behavior in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Primate Report 42: 43-45.

Fruth, B. 1995. Nests and Nest Groups in Wild Bonobos (Panpaniscus): Ecological and Behavioural Correlates. Aachen: Shaker Verlag. 187 pp. [pdf]

Fruth, B., Hohmann, G. 1995. Nahrungsteilung bei freilebenden Bonobos (Pan paniscus). Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft: 177-180 [pdf]

Gerloff, U., Schlötterer, C., Rassmann, K., Rambold, I. Hohmann, G. Fruth, B. & D. Tautz. 1995. Amplification of hypervariable simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) from excremental DNA of wild living bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology 4: 515-518. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 1995. Loud calls in great apes: Sex-differences and social correlates. In: Current Topics In Primate Vocal Communication. ed. Zimmermann E., Newman J. & U. Jürgens. Plenum Press. London. Pp. 161-184. [pdf]

Marchesi, P., Marchesi, N., Fruth, B. & C. Boesch. 1995. Census and distribution of chimpanzees in Côte d'Ivoire. Primates 36: 591-607. [pdf]



Boesch, C., Marchesi P., Marchesi N., Fruth B. & F. Joulian. 1994. Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behaviour? Journal of Human Evolution 26: 325-338. [pdf]

Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 1994. Comparative analyses of nest building behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). in: Chimpanzee Cultures. ed. R.W. Wrangham, W.C. McGrew, F.B.M. de Waal & P.G.Heltne; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Pp. 109-128. [pdf]

Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 1994. Nests: living artefacts of recent apes? Current Anthropology 35: 310-311. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 1994. Structure and use of distance calls in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). International Journal of Primatology 15: 767-782. [pdf]


Fruth, B. & G. Hohmann. 1993. Ecological and behavioural aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology 94: 113-126. [pdf]

Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 1993. Field observations on meat sharing among bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica, 60: 225-229. [pdf]