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Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology  
Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology  
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  malinda  
     
 
 
     
 

photo of Malinda CarpenterProfessor of Developmental Psychology, School of Psychology and
Neuroscience, University of St Andrews
, St Andrews, Scotland

Currently on research leave at:

Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Deutscher Platz 6
D-04103 Leipzig, Germany

+49 (0) 341 3550 419

carpentereva.mpg.de

 
 
 
     
 
EDUCATION  
  Emory University: Ph.D., Psychology, 1995
M.A., Psychology, 1993
  University of Florida: B.A., French and Psychology, 1990
 
     
 
 
     
 
RESEARCH INTERESTS
  • Infants' and young children's:
    • – participation in shared activities (joint attention, gestural communication, imitation, collaboration)
    • – prosocial and affiliative behavior
    • – reactions to in- and out-group members
    • – understanding of others' mental states (intentions, attention, knowledge, and beliefs)
  • Differences between ape and human social cognition
 
     
 
 
 
EDITORIAL ACTIVITIES
  • Associate Editor, Cognition
  • Editorial Board, Child Development Perspectives
 
     
 
 
     
  PUBLICATIONS [By date] [By author] [By topic] [Minerva Research Group]  
   
     
 

Akhtar, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (1996). The role of discourse novelty in early word learning. Child Development, 67, 635-645. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Unwilling versus unable: Infants' understanding of intentional action. Developmental Psychology, 41, 328-337. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., Gräfenhain, M., Liebal, K., Liszkowski, U., Moll, H., Rakoczy, H., Tomasello, M., Warneken, F., & Wyman, E. (2008). Cultural learning and creation. In U. Müller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, & B. Sokol (Eds.), Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development (pp. 65-101). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. Developmental Science, 8, 492-499. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Young children create iconic gestures to inform others. Developmental Psychology.

Behne, T., Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Twelve-month-olds' comprehension and production of pointing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 359-375. [pdf]

Beier, J. S., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2014). Young children help others to achieve their social goals. Developmental Psychology, 50, 934-940. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Developmental Science, 10, F31-F38. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Rational tool use and tool choice in human infants and great apes. Child Development, 79, 609-626. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (2013). Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) recognize successful actions, but fail to imitate them. Animal Behaviour, 86, 755-761. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show false belief understanding in an active helping paradigm. Cognition, 112, 337-342. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Over, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014).  Eighteen-month-olds understand false beliefs in an unexpected-contents  task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 120-126. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Schütte, S., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Great apes infer others' goals based on context. Animal Cognition, 1037-1053. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Zmyj, N., Daum, M. M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Selective imitation of in-group over out-group members in 14-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 422-428. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2001). Do apes and children know what they have seen? Animal Cognition, 3, 207-220. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2002). Three sources of information in social learning. In K. Dautenhahn & C. Nehaniv (Eds.), Imitation in animals and artifacts (pp. 211-228). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2003). On imitation in apes and children. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 26, 325-349. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Monkeys like mimics. Science, 325, 824-825. [pdf]

Call, J., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Animal Cognition, 8, 151-163. [pdf]

Call, J., Hare, B., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2004). 'Unwilling' versus 'unable': Chimpanzees' understanding of human intentions. Developmental Science, 7, 488-498. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2006). Instrumental, social, and shared goals and intentions in imitation. In S. J. Rogers & J. Williams (Eds.), Imitation and the development of the social mind: Lessons from typical development and autism (pp. 48-70). New York: Guilford. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2009). Just how joint is joint action in infancy? Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 380-392. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2010). Prelinguistic communication. In L. Cummings (Ed.), The Pragmatics Encyclopedia (pp. 347-349). London: Routledge. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2010). Social cognition and social motivations in infancy. In U. Goswami (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development, 2nd edition (pp. 106-128). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2012). Joint attention in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1663-1664). Springer. [online]

Carpenter, M. (2014). Imitation (role of) in communicative development. In P. J. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen- to 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315-330. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in D. Muir & A. Slater (Eds.), (2000) Infant development: The essential readings (pp. 295-318). Oxford: Blackwell.

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2002). The chemistry of social learning: Commentary on Want & Harris (2002). Developmental Science, 5, 22-24. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2007). The question of ‘what to imitate’: Inferring goals and intentions from demonstrations. In K. Dautenhahn & C. Nehaniv (Eds.), Imitation and social learning in robots, humans and animals: Behavioural, social and communicative dimensions (pp. 135-151). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2009). Comparing the imitative skills of children and nonhuman apes. Revue de Primatologie, 1 (1). [online]

Carpenter, M. & Call, J. (2013). How joint is the joint attention of  apes and human infants? In J. Metcalfe & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Agency  and joint attention (pp. 49-61). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2002). A new false belief test for 36-month-olds. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 393-420. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2002). Understanding 'prior intentions' enables 2-year-olds to imitatively learn a complex task. Child Development, 73, 1431-1441. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Twelve- and 18-month-olds copy actions in terms of goals. Developmental Science, 8, F13-F20. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Liebal, K. (2011). Joint attention, communication, and knowing together in infancy. In A. Seemann (Ed.), Joint attention: New developments in psychology, philosophy of mind, and social neuroscience (pp. 159-181). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Nielsen, M. (2008). Tools, TV, and trust: Introduction to the special issue on imitation in typically-developing children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 225-227. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2001). Understanding of others’ intentions in children with autism and children with developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 589-599. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2002). Interrelations among social-cognitive skills in young children with autism and developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 91-106. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). Response to Silvio Loddo’s Commentary. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 547-549. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2000). Joint attention, cultural learning, and language acquisition: Implications for children with autism. In A. M. Wetherby & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Communication and language issues in autism and pervasive developmental disorder: A transactional developmental perspective (pp. 31-54). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Savage-Rumbaugh, S. (1995). Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Social Development, 4, 217-237. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Striano, T. (2005). Role reversal imitation and language in typically-developing infants and children with autism. Infancy, 8, 253-278. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Uebel, J., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Being mimicked  increases prosocial behavior in 18-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 1511-1518. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). One-year-olds' understanding of nonverbal gestures directed to a third person. Cognitive Development, 24, 23-33. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Young children’s understanding of joint commitments. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1430-1443. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Three-year-olds'  understanding of the consequences of joint commitments. PLoS ONE8(9): e73039. [online]

Grosse, G., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants communicate in order to be understood. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1710-1722. [pdf]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2010). A new change-of-contents false belief test: Children and chimpanzees compared. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 145-165. [pdf]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2009). A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. Developmental Science, 12, 521-535. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science, 12, 264-271. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants' use of shared experience in declarative pointing. Infancy, 15, 545-556. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Young children's understanding of markedness in nonverbal communication. Journal of Child Language, 38, 888-903. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Young children's understanding of cultural common ground. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 88-96. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Albrecht, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Infants' visual and auditory communication when a partner is or is not visually attending.  Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 157-167. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Henning, A., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2004). Twelve-month-olds point to share attention and interest. Developmental Science, 7, 297-307. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 173-187. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Pointing out new news, old news, and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science, 10 (2), F1-F7. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Reference and attitude in infant pointing. Journal of Child Language, 34, 1-20. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Twelve-month-olds communicate helpfully and appropriately for knowledgeable and ignorant partners. Cognition, 108, 732-739. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Schäfer, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Prelinguistic infants, but not chimpanzees, communicate about absent entities. Psychological Science, 20, 654-660. [pdf]

Lohmann, H., Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2005). Guessing versus choosing – and seeing versus believing – in false belief tasks. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 451-469. [pdf]

Misch, A., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (in press). Stick with your group: Young children's attitudes about group loyalty. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007).  Fourteen-month-olds know what others experience only in joint engagement. Developmental Science, 10, 826-835. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Social engagement leads 2-year-olds to overestimate others' knowledge. Infancy, 16, 248-265. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014). Two- and three-year-olds know what others have and have not heard. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 12-21. [pdf]

Moll, H., Koring, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006). Infants determine others' focus of attention by pragmatics and exclusion. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 411-430. [pdf]

Moll, H., Richter, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Fourteen-month-olds know what 'we' have shared in a special way. Infancy, 13, 90-101. [pdf]

Nielsen, M., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Reflecting on imitation in autism: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 165-169. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show increased helping following priming with affiliation. Psychological Science, 20, 1189-1193. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1-F8. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Imitative learning in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1499-1501). Springer. [online]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Putting the social into social learning: Explaining both selectivity and fidelity in children's copying behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126, 182-192. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2013). The social side of imitation. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 6-11. [pdf]

Note: An updated version of this paper will be reprinted in Z. Radman (Ed.), Interpersonality and social cognition [Special issue]. Synthesis philosophica.

Over, H., Carpenter, M., Spears, R., & Gattis, M. (2013). Children selectively trust individuals who have imitated them. Social Development, 22, 215-425. [pdf]

Rochat, P., Morgan, R., & Carpenter, M. (1997). Young infants' sensitivity to movement information specifying social causality. Cognitive Development, 12, 441-465. [pdf]

Rossano, F., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction. Psychological Science, 23, 1298-1302. [pdf]

Schwier, C., van Maanen, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006).  Rational imitation in 12-month-old infants. Infancy, 10, 303-311. [pdf]

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Maternal talk about mental states and the emergence of joint visual attention. Infancy, 13, 640-659. [pdf]

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Maternal mental state talk and infants' early gestural communication. Journal of Child Language, 36, 1053-1074. [pdf]

Tennie, C., Walter, V., Gampe, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Limitations to the cultural ratchet effect in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Nagell, K., Olguin, R., & Carpenter, M. (1994). The learning and use of gestural signals by young chimpanzees: A trans-generational study. Primates, 35, 137-154. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Warren, J. A., Frost, G. T., Carpenter, M., & Nagell, K. M. (1997). The ontogeny of chimpanzee gestural signals: A comparison across groups and generations. Evolution of Communication, 1, 223-259. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). Intention reading and imitative learning. In S. Hurley & N. Chater (Eds.), Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science: Vol. 2. Imitation, human development, and culture (pp. 133-148). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10, 121-125. [pdf]

Note: This paper has been translated and reprinted in:

  • L. Hoffmann, K. Leimbrink, & U. Quasthoff (Eds.) (2011) Die Matrix der menschlichen Entwicklung (pp. 83-95). Walter de Gruyter. (in German)
  • H. Keller (Ed.) (2011) Handbuch der Kleinkindforschung (pp. 682-693). Huber Verlag. (in German)
  • A. Heinz & U. Kluge (Eds.) (2012) Einwanderung - Bedrohung oder Zukunft? Mythen und Fakten zur Integration. Campus Verlag. (in German)

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675-735. [pdf]

Note:  This paper has been translated and reprinted in:

  • Pszichologial Szemle Konyutar (2007) 11, 61-106(in Hungarian)
  • C. Tewes & K. Vieweg (Eds.) (2011) Natur und Geist. Akademie Verlag (in German)

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., & Liszkowski, U. (2007). A new look at infant pointing. Child Development, 78, 705-722. [pdf]

Note: This paper will be reprinted in F. Liedtke & C. Schulze (Eds.), Beyond the words: Content, context, and inference. Mouton.

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Dueling dualists: Commentary on Carpendale, Atwood, and Kettner. Human Development, 56, 401-405. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Sympathy through affective perspective-taking and its relation to prosocial behavior in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 45, 534-543. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in M. Killen and R. J. Coplan (Eds.) (2011) Social development in childhood and adolescence: A contemporary reader. Wiley-Blackwell.

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81, 1661-1669. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Young children's responses to guilt displays. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1248-1262. [pdf]

Zmyj, N., Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Daum, M. (2010). The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds' imitation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 208-220. [pdf]

     
     
  Edited special issues  
 


Carpenter, M., & Nielsen, M. (Eds.). (2008). Imitation in autism [Special issue]. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101(3).

Nielsen, M., & Carpenter, M. (Eds.). (2008). Imitation in typically-developing children. [Special issue]. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101 (4).

 
 
 
     
   
     
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