mousehouse
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology  
Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology  
rabbit little bird box
  malinda  
     
 
 
     
 

photo of Malinda CarpenterProfessor of Developmental Psychology, School of Psychology and
Neuroscience, University of St Andrews
, St Andrews, Scotland

Currently on research leave at:

Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Deutscher Platz 6
D-04103 Leipzig, Germany

+49 (0) 341 3550 419

carpentereva.mpg.de

 
 
 
     
 
EDUCATION  
  Emory University: Ph.D., Psychology, 1995
M.A., Psychology, 1993
  University of Florida: B.A., French and Psychology, 1990
 
     
 
 
     
 
RESEARCH INTERESTS
  • Infants' and young children's:
    • – participation in shared activities (joint attention, gestural communication, imitation, collaboration)
    • – prosocial and affiliative behavior
    • – reactions to in- and out-group members
    • – understanding of others' mental states (intentions, attention, knowledge, and beliefs)
  • Differences between ape and human social cognition
 
 
 
     
 
EDITORIAL ACTIVITIES
  • Associate Editor, Cognition
  • Editorial Board, Child Development Perspectives
 
     
 
 
     
  PUBLICATIONS [By date] [By author] [By topic] [Minerva Research Group]  
   
     
  [Overviews]  [Imitation]  [Communication]  [Joint Attention]  [Joint Action/Collaboration] 
[Helping/Prosocial Behavior/Moral Behavior]
 [Affiliation/Social Motivations/Group Membership]  [‘Theory of Mind’]  [Children with Autism]  [Apes]
 
   
     
  OVERVIEWS  
     
 

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2013). The social side of imitation. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 6-11. [pdf]

Note: An updated version of this paper will be reprinted in Z. Radman (Ed.), Interpersonality and social cognition [Special issue]. Synthesis philosophica.

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Dueling dualists: Commentary on Carpendale, Atwood, and Kettner. Human Development, 56, 401-405. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Putting the social into social learning: Explaining both selectivity and fidelity in children's copying behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126, 182-192. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2010). Social cognition and social motivations in infancy. In U. Goswami (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development, 2nd edition (pp. 106-128). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2009). Just how joint is joint action in infancy? Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 380-392. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., Gräfenhain, M., Liebal, K., Liszkowski, U., Moll, H., Rakoczy, H., Tomasello, M., Warneken, F., & Wyman, E. (2008). Cultural learning and creation. In U. Müller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, & B. Sokol (Eds.), Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development (pp. 65-101). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10, 121-125. [pdf]

Note: This paper has been translated and reprinted in:

  • L. Hoffmann, K. Leimbrink, & U. Quasthoff (Eds.) (2011) Die Matrix der menschlichen Entwicklung (pp. 83-95). Walter de Gruyter. (in German)
  • H. Keller (Ed.) (2011) Handbuch der Kleinkindforschung (pp. 682-693). Huber Verlag. (in German)
  • A. Heinz & U. Kluge (Eds.) (2012) Einwanderung - Bedrohung oder Zukunft? Mythen und Fakten zur Integration. Campus Verlag. (in German)

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675-735. [pdf]

Note:  This paper has been translated and reprinted in:

  • Pszichologial Szemle Konyutar (2007) 11, 61-106 (in Hungarian)
  • C. Tewes & K. Vieweg (Eds.) (2011) Natur und Geist. Akademie Verlag (in German)

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). [pdf]

 
   
     
 
IMITATION
 
     
 

Tennie, C., Walter, V., Gampe, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Limitations to the cultural ratchet effect in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 

Carpenter, M. (2014). Imitation (role of) in communicative development. In P. J. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (2013). Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) recognize successful actions, but fail to imitate them. Animal Behaviour, 86, 755-761. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Zmyj, N., Daum, M. M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Selective imitation of in-group over out-group members in 14-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 422-428. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Uebel, J., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Being mimicked  increases prosocial behavior in 18-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 1511-1518. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2013). The social side of imitation. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 6-11. [pdf]

Note: An updated version of this paper will be reprinted in Z. Radman (Ed.), Interpersonality and social cognition [Special issue]. Synthesis philosophica.

Over, H., Carpenter, M., Spears, R., & Gattis, M. (2013). Children selectively trust individuals who have imitated them. Social Development, 22, 215-425. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Imitative learning in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1499-1501). Springer. [online]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Putting the social into social learning: Explaining both selectivity and fidelity in children's copying behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126, 182-192. [pdf]

Zmyj, N., Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Daum, M. (2010). The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds' imitation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 208-220. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Monkeys like mimics. Science, 325, 824-825. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2009). Comparing the imitative skills of children and nonhuman apes. Revue de Primatologie, 1 (1). [online]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1-F8. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Rational tool use and tool choice in human infants and great apes. Child Development, 79, 609-626. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Nielsen, M. (2008). Tools, TV, and trust: Introduction to the special issue on imitation in typically-developing children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 225-227. [pdf]

Nielsen, M., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Reflecting on imitation in autism: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 165-169. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Developmental Science, 10, F31-F38. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2007). The question of ‘what to imitate’: Inferring goals and intentions from demonstrations. In K. Dautenhahn & C. Nehaniv (Eds.), Imitation and social learning in robots, humans and animals: Behavioural, social and communicative dimensions (pp. 135-151). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2006). Instrumental, social, and shared goals and intentions in imitation. In S. J. Rogers & J. Williams (Eds.), Imitation and the development of the social mind: Lessons from typical development and autism (pp. 48-70). New York: Guilford. [pdf]

Schwier, C., van Maanen, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006).  Rational imitation in 12-month-old infants. Infancy, 10, 303-311. [pdf]

Call, J., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Animal Cognition, 8, 151-163. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Twelve- and 18-month-olds copy actions in terms of goals. Developmental Science, 8, F13-F20. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Striano, T. (2005). Role reversal imitation and language in typically-developing infants and children with autism. Infancy, 8, 253-278. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). Intention reading and imitative learning. In S. Hurley & N. Chater (Eds.), Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science: Vol. 2. Imitation, human development, and culture (pp. 133-148). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2003). On imitation in apes and children. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 26, 325-349. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2002). Three sources of information in social learning. In K. Dautenhahn & C. Nehaniv (Eds.), Imitation in animals and artifacts (pp. 211-228). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2002). The chemistry of social learning: Commentary on Want & Harris (2002). Developmental Science, 5, 22-24. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2002). Understanding 'prior intentions' enables 2-year-olds to imitatively learn a complex task. Child Development, 73, 1431-1441. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2001). Understanding of others’ intentions in children with autism and children with developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 589-599. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen- to 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315-330. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in D. Muir & A. Slater (Eds.), (2000) Infant development The essential readings(pp. 295-318). Oxford: Blackwell.

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Savage-Rumbaugh, S. (1995). Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Social Development, 4, 217-237. [pdf]

   
     
 
COMMUNICATION
 
 


 
 

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Young children create iconic gestures to inform others. Developmental Psychology.

Beier, J. S., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2014). Young children help others to achieve their social goals. Developmental Psychology, 50, 934-940. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2014). Imitation (role of) in communicative development. In P. J. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Carpenter, M. & Call, J. (2013). How joint is the joint attention of  apes and human infants? In J. Metcalfe & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Agency  and joint attention (pp. 49-61). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Young children's understanding of cultural common ground. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 88-96. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Dueling dualists: Commentary on Carpendale, Atwood, and Kettner. Human Development, 56, 401-405. [pdf]

Behne, T., Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Twelve-month-olds' comprehension and production of pointing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 359-375. [pdf]

Rossano, F., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction. Psychological Science, 23, 1298-1302. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Liebal, K. (2011). Joint attention, communication, and knowing together in infancy. In A. Seemann (Ed.), Joint attention: New developments in psychology, philosophy of mind, and social neuroscience (pp. 159-181). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Young children's understanding of markedness in nonverbal communication. Journal of Child Language, 38, 888-903. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Social engagement leads 2-year-olds to overestimate others' knowledge. Infancy, 16, 248-265. [pdf]

Grosse, G., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants communicate in order to be understood. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1710-1722. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants' use of shared experience in declarative pointing. Infancy, 15, 545-556. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2010). Prelinguistic communication. In L. Cummings (Ed.), The Pragmatics Encyclopedia (pp. 347-349). London: Routledge. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). One-year-olds' understanding of nonverbal gestures directed to a third person. Cognitive Development, 24, 23-33. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science, 12, 264-271. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Schäfer, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Prelinguistic infants, but not chimpanzees, communicate about absent entities. Psychological Science, 20, 654-660. [pdf]

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Maternal mental state talk and infants' early gestural communication. Journal of Child Language, 36, 1053-1074. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Albrecht, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Infants' visual and auditory communication when a partner is or is not visually attending.  Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 157-167. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Twelve-month-olds communicate helpfully and appropriately for knowledgeable and ignorant partners. Cognition, 108, 732-739. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Pointing out new news, old news, and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science, 10 (2), F1-F7. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Reference and attitude in infant pointing. Journal of Child Language, 34, 1-20. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., & Liszkowski, U. (2007). A new look at infant pointing. Child Development, 78, 705-722. [pdf]

Note: This paper will be reprinted in F. Liedtke & C. Schulze (Eds.), Beyond the words: Content, context, and inference. Mouton.

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 173-187. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. Developmental Science, 8, 492-499. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Striano, T. (2005). Role reversal imitation and language in typically-developing infants and children with autism. Infancy, 8, 253-278. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Henning, A., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2004). Twelve-month-olds point to share attention and interest. Developmental Science, 7, 297-307. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2000). Joint attention, cultural learning, and language acquisition: Implications for children with autism. In A. M. Wetherby & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Communication and language issues in autism and pervasive developmental disorder: A transactional developmental perspective (pp. 31-54). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Warren, J. A., Frost, G. T., Carpenter, M., & Nagell, K. M. (1997). The ontogeny of chimpanzee gestural signals: A comparison across groups and generations. Evolution of Communication, 1, 223-259. [pdf]

Akhtar, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (1996). The role of discourse novelty in early word learning. Child Development, 67, 635-645. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Nagell, K., Olguin, R., & Carpenter, M. (1994). The learning and use of gestural signals by young chimpanzees: A trans-generational study. Primates, 35, 137-154. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
JOINT ATTENTION/SHARED EXPERIENCES/COMMON GROUND
 
 


 
 

Carpenter, M. & Call, J. (2013). How joint is the joint attention of  apes and human infants? In J. Metcalfe & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Agency  and joint attention (pp. 49-61). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Young children's understanding of cultural common ground. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 88-96. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2012). Joint attention in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1663-1664). Springer. [online]

Rossano, F., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction. Psychological Science, 23, 1298-1302. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Liebal, K. (2011). Joint attention, communication, and knowing together in infancy. In A. Seemann (Ed.), Joint attention: New developments in psychology, philosophy of mind, and social neuroscience (pp. 159-181). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Young children's understanding of markedness in nonverbal communication. Journal of Child Language, 38, 888-903. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Social engagement leads 2-year-olds to overestimate others' knowledge. Infancy, 16, 248-265. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants' use of shared experience in declarative pointing. Infancy, 15, 545-556. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science, 12, 264-271. [pdf]

Moll, H., Richter, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Fourteen-month-olds know what 'we' have shared in a special way. Infancy, 13, 90-101. [pdf]

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Maternal talk about mental states and the emergence of joint visual attention. Infancy, 13, 640-659. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Pointing out new news, old news, and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science, 10 (2), F1-F7. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Reference and attitude in infant pointing. Journal of Child Language, 34, 1-20. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007).  Fourteen-month-olds know what others experience only in joint engagement. Developmental Science, 10, 826-835. [pdf]

Moll, H., Koring, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006). Infants determine others' focus of attention by pragmatics and exclusion. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 411-430. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Henning, A., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2004). Twelve-month-olds point to share attention and interest. Developmental Science, 7, 297-307. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2000). Joint attention, cultural learning, and language acquisition: Implications for children with autism. In A. M. Wetherby & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Communication and language issues in autism and pervasive developmental disorder: A transactional developmental perspective (pp. 31-54). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Savage-Rumbaugh, S. (1995). Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Social Development, 4, 217-237. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
JOINT ACTION/COLLABORATION
 
     
 

Gräfenhain, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Three-year-olds'  understanding of the consequences of joint commitments. PLoS ONE8(9): e73039. [online]

Carpenter, M., & Liebal, K. (2011). Joint attention, communication, and knowing together in infancy. In A. Seemann (Ed.), Joint attention: New developments in psychology, philosophy of mind, and social neuroscience (pp. 159-181). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2009). Just how joint is joint action in infancy? Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 380-392. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Young children’s understanding of joint commitments. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1430-1443. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675-735. [pdf]

Note:  This paper has been translated and reprinted in:

  • Pszichologial Szemle Konyutar (2007) 11, 61-106 (in Hungarian)
  • C. Tewes & K. Vieweg (Eds.) (2011) Natur und Geist. Akademie Verlag (in German)
 
   
     
 
HELPING/PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR/MORAL BEHAVIOR
 
 


 
 

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Young children create iconic gestures to inform others. Developmental Psychology.

Misch, A., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (in press). Stick with your group: Young children's attitudes about group loyalty. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Beier, J. S., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2014). Young children help others to achieve their social goals. Developmental Psychology, 50, 934-940. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Over, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014).  Eighteen-month-olds understand false beliefs in an unexpected-contents  task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 120-126. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Uebel, J., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Being mimicked  increases prosocial behavior in 18-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 1511-1518. [pdf]

Gräfenhain, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Three-year-olds'  understanding of the consequences of joint commitments. PLoS ONE8(9): e73039. [online]

Over, H., Carpenter, M., Spears, R., & Gattis, M. (2013). Children selectively trust individuals who have imitated them. Social Development, 22, 215-425. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Young children's responses to guilt displays. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1248-1262. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81, 1661-1669. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show false belief understanding in an active helping paradigm. Cognition, 112, 337-342. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show increased helping following priming with affiliation. Psychological Science, 20, 1189-1193. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Sympathy through affective perspective-taking and its relation to prosocial behavior in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 45, 534-543. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in M. Killen and R. J. Coplan (Eds.) (2011) Social development in childhood and adolescence: A contemporary reader. Wiley-Blackwell.

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Twelve-month-olds communicate helpfully and appropriately for knowledgeable and ignorant partners. Cognition, 108, 732-739. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Pointing out new news, old news, and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science, 10 (2), F1-F7. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 173-187. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
AFFILIATION/SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS/GROUP MEMBERSHIP
 
 


 
 

Misch, A., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (in press). Stick with your group: Young children's attitudes about group loyalty. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Buttelmann, D., Zmyj, N., Daum, M. M., & Carpenter, M. (2013). Selective imitation of in-group over out-group members in 14-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 422-428. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Uebel, J., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Being mimicked  increases prosocial behavior in 18-month-old infants. Child Development, 84, 1511-1518. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2013). The social side of imitation. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 6-11. [pdf]

Note: An updated version of this paper will be reprinted in Z. Radman (Ed.), Interpersonality and social cognition [Special issue]. Synthesis philosophica.

Over, H., Carpenter, M., Spears, R., & Gattis, M. (2013). Children selectively trust individuals who have imitated them. Social Development, 22, 215-425. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Putting the social into social learning: Explaining both selectivity and fidelity in children's copying behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126, 182-192. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2010). Social cognition and social motivations in infancy. In U. Goswami (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development, 2nd edition (pp. 106-128). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Monkeys like mimics. Science, 325, 824-825. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show increased helping following priming with affiliation. Psychological Science, 20, 1189-1193. [pdf]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1-F8. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2006). Instrumental, social, and shared goals and intentions in imitation. In S. J. Rogers & J. Williams (Eds.), Imitation and the development of the social mind: Lessons from typical development and autism (pp. 48-70). New York: Guilford. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
"THEORY OF MIND"/UNDERSTANDING OF OTHERS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES
 
 
False beliefs
 
     
 

Buttelmann, D., Over, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014).  Eighteen-month-olds understand false beliefs in an unexpected-contents  task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 120-126. [pdf]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2010). A new change-of-contents false belief test: Children and chimpanzees compared. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 145-165. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show false belief understanding in an active helping paradigm. Cognition, 112, 337-342. [pdf]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2009). A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. Developmental Science, 12, 521-535. [pdf]

Lohmann, H., Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2005). Guessing versus choosing – and seeing versus believing – in false belief tasks. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 451-469. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2002). A new false belief test for 36-month-olds. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 393-420. [pdf]

 
     
     
  Goals and intentions  
     
 

Beier, J. S., Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2014). Young children help others to achieve their social goals. Developmental Psychology, 50, 934-940. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Schütte, S., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Great apes infer others' goals based on context. Animal Cognition, 1037-1053. [pdf]

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81, 1661-1669. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Rational tool use and tool choice in human infants and great apes. Child Development, 79, 609-626. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Developmental Science, 10, F31-F38. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2007). The question of ‘what to imitate’: Inferring goals and intentions from demonstrations. In K. Dautenhahn & C. Nehaniv (Eds.), Imitation and social learning in robots, humans and animals: Behavioural, social and communicative dimensions (pp. 135-151). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2006). Instrumental, social, and shared goals and intentions in imitation. In S. J. Rogers & J. Williams (Eds.), Imitation and the development of the social mind: Lessons from typical development and autism (pp. 48-70). New York: Guilford. [pdf]

Schwier, C., van Maanen, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006).  Rational imitation in 12-month-old infants. Infancy, 10, 303-311. [pdf]

Behne, T., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Unwilling versus unable: Infants' understanding of intentional action. Developmental Psychology, 41, 328-337. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Twelve- and 18-month-olds copy actions in terms of goals. Developmental Science, 8, F13-F20. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). Intention reading and imitative learning. In S. Hurley & N. Chater (Eds.), Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science: Vol. 2. Imitation, human development, and culture (pp. 133-148). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Call, J., Hare, B., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2004). 'Unwilling' versus 'unable': Chimpanzees' understanding of human intentions. Developmental Science, 7, 488-498. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). Response to Silvio Loddo’s Commentary. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 547-549. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2002). Understanding 'prior intentions' enables 2-year-olds to imitatively learn a complex task. Child Development, 73, 1431-1441. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2001). Understanding of others’ intentions in children with autism and children with developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 589-599. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen- to 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315-330. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in D. Muir & A. Slater (Eds.), (2000) Infant development: The essential readings (pp. 295-318). Oxford: Blackwell.

Rochat, P., Morgan, R., & Carpenter, M. (1997). Young infants' sensitivity to movement information specifying social causality. Cognitive Development, 12, 441-465. [pdf]

 
     
     
  Knowledge/ignorance  
     
 

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014). Two- and three-year-olds know what others have and have not heard. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 12-21. [pdf]

Liebal, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Young children's understanding of cultural common ground. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 88-96. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Liebal, K. (2011). Joint attention, communication, and knowing together in infancy. In A. Seemann (Ed.), Joint attention: New developments in psychology, philosophy of mind, and social neuroscience (pp. 159-181). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Social engagement leads 2-year-olds to overestimate others' knowledge. Infancy, 16, 248-265. [pdf]

Zmyj, N., Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., & Daum, M. (2010). The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds' imitation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 208-220. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Twelve-month-olds communicate helpfully and appropriately for knowledgeable and ignorant partners. Cognition, 108, 732-739. [pdf]

Moll, H., Richter, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Fourteen-month-olds know what 'we' have shared in a special way. Infancy, 13, 90-101. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Pointing out new news, old news, and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science, 10 (2), F1-F7. [pdf]

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2007).  Fourteen-month-olds know what others experience only in joint engagement. Developmental Science, 10, 826-835. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Striano, T., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 173-187. [pdf]

Akhtar, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (1996). The role of discourse novelty in early word learning. Child Development, 67, 635-645. [pdf]

 
     
     
  Attention  
     
 

Moll, H., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2014). Two- and three-year-olds know what others have and have not heard. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 12-21. [pdf]

Rossano, F., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction. Psychological Science, 23, 1298-1302. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Albrecht, K., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Infants' visual and auditory communication when a partner is or is not visually attending.  Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 157-167. [pdf]

Moll, H., Koring, C., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M.  (2006). Infants determine others' focus of attention by pragmatics and exclusion. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7, 411-430. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2001). Do apes and children know what they have seen? Animal Cognition, 3, 207-220. [pdf]

 
     
     
  Affective perspective-taking  
     
 

Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Sympathy through affective perspective-taking and its relation to prosocial behavior in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 45, 534-543. [pdf]

Note: This paper is reprinted in M. Killen and R. J. Coplan (Eds.) (2011) Social development in childhood and adolescence: A contemporary reader. Wiley-Blackwell.

 
     
     
  Maternal mental state talk  
     
 

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Maternal mental state talk and infants' early gestural communication. Journal of Child Language, 36, 1053-1074. [pdf]

Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Maternal talk about mental states and the emergence of joint visual attention. Infancy, 13, 640-659. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
 
     
 

Nielsen, M., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Reflecting on imitation in autism: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 165-169. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Striano, T. (2005). Role reversal imitation and language in typically-developing infants and children with autism. Infancy, 8, 253-278. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). Response to Silvio Loddo’s Commentary. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 547-549. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2002). Interrelations among social-cognitive skills in young children with autism and developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 91-106. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (2001). Understanding of others’ intentions in children with autism and children with developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 589-599. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2000). Joint attention, cultural learning, and language acquisition: Implications for children with autism. In A. M. Wetherby & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Communication and language issues in autism and pervasive developmental disorder: A transactional developmental perspective (pp. 31-54). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. [pdf]

 
   
     
 
APES
 
     
 

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (2013). Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) recognize successful actions, but fail to imitate them. Animal Behaviour, 86, 755-761. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. & Call, J. (2013). How joint is the joint attention of  apes and human infants? In J. Metcalfe & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Agency  and joint attention (pp. 49-61). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Schütte, S., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Great apes infer others' goals based on context. Animal Cognition, 1037-1053. [pdf]

Carpenter, M. (2012). Joint attention in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1663-1664). Springer. [online]

Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Imitative learning in humans and animals. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1499-1501). Springer. [online]

Rossano, F., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction. Psychological Science, 23, 1298-1302. [pdf]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2010). A new change-of-contents false belief test: Children and chimpanzees compared. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 145-165. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Monkeys like mimics. Science, 325, 824-825. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., & Call, J. (2009). Comparing the imitative skills of children and nonhuman apes. Revue de Primatologie, 1 (1). [online]

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2009). A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. Developmental Science, 12, 521-535. [pdf]

Liszkowski, U., Schäfer, M., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Prelinguistic infants, but not chimpanzees, communicate about absent entities. Psychological Science, 20, 654-660. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Rational tool use and tool choice in human infants and great apes. Child Development, 79, 609-626. [pdf]

Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  (2007). Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Developmental Science, 10, F31-F38. [pdf]

Call, J., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Animal Cognition, 8, 151-163. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2005). The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (1, Serial No. 279).

Call, J., Hare, B., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2004). 'Unwilling' versus 'unable': Chimpanzees' understanding of human intentions. Developmental Science, 7, 488-498. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2003). On imitation in apes and children. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 26, 325-349. [pdf]

Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2001). Do apes and children know what they have seen? Animal Cognition, 3, 207-220. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Warren, J. A., Frost, G. T., Carpenter, M., & Nagell, K. M. (1997). The ontogeny of chimpanzee gestural signals: A comparison across groups and generations. Evolution of Communication, 1, 223-259. [pdf]

Carpenter, M., Tomasello, M., & Savage-Rumbaugh, S. (1995). Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Social Development, 4, 217-237. [pdf]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., Nagell, K., Olguin, R., & Carpenter, M. (1994). The learning and use of gestural signals by young chimpanzees: A trans-generational study. Primates, 35, 137-154. [pdf]

 
   
     
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