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Department of Human Evolution

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig

phone: +49 (341) 3550 - 350
fax: +49 (0341) 3550 - 399

e-mail: streiber@[>>> Please remove the brackets! <<<]eva.mpg.de


Gottfried Hohmann

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Department of Human Evolution
Deutscher Platz 6
D-04103 Leipzig, Germany

phone: +49 341 3550 208
e-mail: hohmann@[>>> Please remove the brackets! <<<]eva.mpg.de

Current Research
Scientific background
Curriculum Vitae
Publications
Links

Current Research

My current research interest focuses on several questions about the conditions under which bonobos have evolved and how this development has shaped their social behaviour. What were the causes for the divergent evolution of the two Pan species, the bonobo and the chimpanzee? How different are the two sister species? Have males and females been affected differently by the divergent development and if so, what were the driving forces to induce changes in one but not the other sex? In order to tackle these questions, I am using information from wild bonobos observed at Lomako (1989-1998) and LuiKotale (since 2002). In addition, my current interest focuses on developmental processes in bonobos and chimpanzees. Integrating data on developmental changes in physiology, behavior and morphology is one way to explore the emergence of differences in social behavior that are so prominent in adult individuals.

Scientific background

I studied biology at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, focusing on animal physiology, anthropology and biophysics. I started work on nonhuman primates with experimental studies at the MPI for Psychiatry by exploring the physical configuration of vocal and visual signals used by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). This work was followed by field studies on the vocal communication of sympatric species of macaques (Macaca silenus, M. radiata) and langurs (Presbythis johnii, P. entellus) in South India. The four species offer an interesting model as they differ in terms of their social systems and in their flexibility to adapt to environmental changes. This work was done in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore) and led to my PhD at the LM-University Munich.

After finishing my PhD, I moved from the Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry to the Max Planck Research Centre for Human Ethology (1989-95). Here I started work on wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Lomako. This work was initially funded by  the MPI for Human Evolution and later by the MPI for Behavioral Physiology (1996-99). Since 1999, my research is hosted by the MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology. Studies at Lomako continued for eight years and produced the first information from fully habituated but unprovisioned bonobos. This included data on kin relationships of natural communities, the relation between kinship and social ties, and the first detailed information on hunting, meat eating and meat sharing by female bonobos highlighting the role of females in a domain that is usually considered to be dominated by males.

In 2002, a new study site was established for hosting long-term field research on bonobos at LuiKotale. This site is used jointly by the bonobo project and by a long-term project on  plant biodiversity directed by Barbara Fruth (http://www.eva.mpg.de/procuv). Initial studies of bonobos at LuiKotale have focused on a complex of related aspects such as feeding behaviour, food processing, nutritional ecology, and forest productivity. Following habituation of the members of one community to close range observations, various behavioural aspects are now being studied by post-docs, PhD and Master students. Meanwhile a second community tolerates the presence of humans which allows expanding research activities of this population.

Ongoing field studies combine behavioural observations with molecular genetics, behavioural physiology, and ecological data. Field work in Congo is complemented by a series of experimental studies on converging topics such as ontogeny, social and environmental stress, nutrition, and energy acquisition.

Curriculum Vitae

1978-1984Studies of biology, anthropology, and biophysics at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
1985-1987Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
1987-1989Max-Planck Institute for Psychiatry and Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
1989Dissertation at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
1989-1995Deptartment of Human Ethology, Max-Planck-Society, Germany
1996-1998Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology Seewiesen, Germany
since January 1999Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Dept. Primatology), Leipzig, Germany
since 2007representative of the scientific staff of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

 

In addition to annual budgets from the Max Planck Society, funding has been obtained from the following organizations:

1989 – 1993multiple grants from the German Science Foundation for creating the infrastructure for long-term field research at Lomako
since 1995multiple grants from the German Science Foundation for studies on the genetic relations of wild bonobos (collaboration with D Tautz, Munich University)
since 1997multiple grants from the German Science Foundation for studies on sexual behaviour and endocrinology in wild and captive bonobos (collaboration with K Hodges and M Heistermann, German Primate Centre, Göttingen)
since 1999multiple grants from the German Science Foundation for studies on the genetic variability of bonobos (collaboration with L Vigilant, MPI for Evolutionary Antropology, Leipzig)
1999Volkswagen Foundation for studies on the pharmacological activity of bonobo food plants (collaboration with K Dibungi, Uni Kinshasa, and D. Paper Uni Regensburg)
2000multiple grants from The Leakey Foundation for a comparative study on feeding ecology in bonobos and chimpanzees
2002German Technical Cooperation for the development of the Salonga National Park as a resource for conservation, science and tourism
since 2005multiple grants from the National Geographic Society for field research in Congo
2008/10multiple grants from Primate Action Fund of Conservation International for organizing anti-poaching campaigns

 

Long-term research collaborations have been established with:

  • Dept. of Anthropology, University College London
  • Dept. of Anthropology, George Washington University
  • Dept. of Anthropolgy, Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Dept. of Comparative Cognition, Université de Neuchâtel
  • Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging
  • the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (http://www.izw-berlin.de/),
  • the Laboratory for Endocrinological Diagnostics at the Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics at Leipzig University (http://www.uni-leipzig.de/),
  • the zoos of Apenheul (NL), Berlin (G), Cologne (G), Frankfurt am Main (G), Leipzig (G), Planckendael (B), Straubing (G), and Wuppertal (G).
  • Courant-Research Center Evolution of Social Behavior, Georg August Universität Göttingen
  • Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen
  • Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp

Publications

In press

Behringer, V., Stevens, J. M. G., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (in press). Growing up: Comparing ontogeny of bonobos and chimpanzees. In L. M. Hopper, & S. R. Ross (Eds.), Chimpanzees in context: A comparative perspective on chimpanzee behavior, cognition, conservation, and welfare (pp.?). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Girard-Buttoz, C., Surbeck, M., Samuni, L., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Crockford, C., Hohmann, G., & Wittig, R. M. (in press). Variable use of polyadic grooming and its effect on access to social partners in wild chimpanzees and bonobos. Animal Behavior.

2020

Girard-Buttoz, C., Surbeck, M., Samuni, L., Tkaczynski, P. J., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Wittig, R. M., Hohmann, G., & Crockford, C. (2020). Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social cognition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,287(1929): 20200877.
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Bessone, M., Kühl, H. S., Hohmann, G., Herbinger, I., N'Goran, K. P., Asanzi, P., Da Costa, P. B., Dérozier, V., Fotsing D. B., E., Beka B., I., Iyomi D., M., Iyatshi B., I., Kafando, P., Kambere A., M., Moundzoho B., D., Wanzalire L. K., M., & Fruth, B. (2020). Drawn out of the shadows: Surveying secretive forest species with camera-trap distance sampling (Advance online). Journal of Applied Ecology.
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Lee, S. M., Hohmann, G., Fruth, B., Lonsdorf, E. V., Wellens, K. R., Stanton, M. A., & Murray, C. M. (2020). Immature female social preferences in wild populations of bonobos and chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,171(S69), 157-158.
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Oelze, V. M., Hohmann, G., O'Neal, I., Lee, S., & Fruth, B. (2020). Competing siblings and invested first time mothers: Weaning patterns in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) revealed by stable isotope analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,171(S69), 205-205.
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Deschner, T., Hohmann, G., Ortmann, S., Schaebs, F. S., & Behringer, V. (2020). Urinary total T3 levels as a method to monitor metabolic changes in relation to variation in caloric intake in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). General and Comparative Endocrinology,285: 113290.
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Girard-Buttoz, C., Surbeck, M., Samuni, L., Tkaczynski, P. J., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Wittig, R. M., Hohmann, G., & Crockford, C. (2020). Chimpanzees outperform bonobos at an experimental cooperative task in the wild: Information transfer around a stationary danger. Folia Primatologica,91(3), 255-256.
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Lee, S. M., Murray, C. M., Lonsdorf, E. V., Fruth, B., Stanton, M. A., Nichols, J., & Hohmann, G. (2020). Wild bonobo and chimpanzee females exhibit broadly similar patterns of behavioral maturation but some evidence for divergence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,171(1), 100-109.
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Tkaczynski, P. J., Behringer, V., Ackermann, C., Fedrurek, P., Fruht, B., Girard-Buttoz, C., Hobaiter, C., Lee, S., Löhrich, T., Preis, A., Samuni, L., Zommers, Z., Zuberbühler, K., Deschner, T., Wittig, R. M., Hohmann, G., & Crockford, C. (2020). Patterns of urinary cortisol levels during ontogeny appear population- rather than species-specific in wild chimpanzees and bonobos. Journal of Human Evolution,147: 102869.
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2019

Surbeck, M., Boesch, C., Girard-Buttoz, C., Crockford, C., Hohmann, G., & Wittig, R. M. (2019). Erratum: Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior. American Journal of Primatology,81(13): e23075.
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Moscovice, L. R., Surbeck, M., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Jaeggi, A., & Deschner, T. (2019). The cooperative sex: Sexual interactions among female bonobos are linked to increases in oxytocin, proximity and coalitions. Hormones and Behavior,116: 104581.
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Hohmann, G., Ortmann, S., Remer, T., & Fruth, B. (2019). Fishing for iodine: What aquatic foraging by bonobos tells us about human evolution. BMC Zoology,4: 5.
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Hohmann, G., Vigilant, L., Mundry, R., Behringer, V., & Surbeck, M. (2019). Aggression by male bonobos against immature individuals does not fit with predictions of infanticide. Aggressive Behavior,45(3), 300-309.
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Surbeck, M., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Thompson, M. E., Furuichi, T., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Ishizuka, S., Machanda, Z., Muller, M. N., Pusey, A., Sakamaki, T., Tokuyama, N., Walker, K., Wrangham, R., Wroblewski, E., Zuberbühler, K., Vigilant, L., & Langergraber, K. (2019). Males with a mother living in their group have higher paternity success in bonobos but not chimpanzees. Current Biology,29(10), R354-R355.
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Kalan, A. K., Hohmann, G., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., McCarthy, M., Agbor, A., Angedakin, S., Bailey, E., Wilungula Balongelwa, C., Bessone, M., Bocksberger, G., Coxe, S. J., Deschner, T., Despres-Einspenner, M.-L., Dieguez, P., Fruth, B., Herbinger, I., Granjon, A.-C., Head, J. S., Kablan, Y. A., Langergraber, K. E., Lotana Lokasola, A., Maretti, G., Marrocoli, S., Mbende, M., Moustgaard, J., N’Goran, P. K., Robbins, M. M., van Schijndel, J., Sommer, V., Surbeck, M., Tagg, N., Willie, J., Wittig, R. M., & Kühl, H. S. (2019). Novelty response of wild African apes to camera traps. Current Biology,29(7), 1211-1217.
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Grawunder, S., Crockford, C., Kalan, A. K., Clay, Z., Stoessel, A., & Hohmann, G. (2019). Response to Garcia and Dunn: No evidence that maximum fundamental frequency reflects selection for signal diminution in bonobos Response. Current Biology,29(15), R734-R735.
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2018

Nurmi, N., Hohmann, G., Goldstone, L. G., Deschner, T., & Schülke, O. (2018). The "tolerant chimpanzee" —towards the costs and benefits of sociality in female bonobos. Behavioral Ecology,29(6), 1325-1339.
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Grawunder, S., Crockford, C., Clay, Z., Kalan, A. K., Stevens, J. M., Stoessel, A., & Hohmann, G. (2018). Higher fundamental frequency in bonobos is explained by larynx morphology. Current Biology,28(20), R1188-R1189.
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Behringer, V., Stevens, J. M. G., Deschner, T., Sonnweber, R., & Hohmann, G. (2018). Aging and sex affect soluble alpha klotho levels in bonobos and chimpanzees. Frontiers in Zoology,15: 35.
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Behringer, V., Deimel, C., Hohmann, G., Negrey, J., Schaebs, F. S., & Deschner, T. (2018). Applications for non-invasive thyroid hormone measurements in mammalian ecology, growth, and maintenance. Hormones and Behavior,105, 66-85.
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Behringer, V., Stevens, J., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (2018). Getting closer: Contributions of zoo studies to research on the physiology and development of Bonobos Pan paniscus, Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and other primates. International Zoo Yearbook,52(1), 34-47.
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Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2018). Food Sharing across borders: First observation of inter-community meat sharing by bonobos at LuiKotale, DRC. Human Nature,29(2), 91-103.
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2017

Donati, G., Santini, L., Eppley, T. M., Arrigo-Nelson, S. J., Balestri, M., Boinski, S., Bollen, A., Bridgeman, L. L., Campera, M., Carrai, V., Chalise, M. K., Lewis, A. D., Hohmann, G., Kinnaird, M. F., Koenig, A., Kowalewski, M., Lahann, P., McLennan, M. R., Nekaris, A. K. I., Nijman, V., Norscia, I., Ostner, J., Polowinsky, S. Y., Schuelke, O., Schwitzer, C., Stevenson, P. R., Talebi, M. G., Tan, C., Tomaschewski, I., Vogel, E. R., Wright, P. C., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2017). Low levels of fruit nitrogen as drivers for the evolution of Madagascar's primate communities. Scientific Reports,7: 14406.
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Beaune, D., Hohmann, G., Serckx, A., Sakamaki, T., Narat, V., & Fruth, B. (2017). How bonobo communities deal with fruits containing high tannin content: Re-ingestion and other feeding processes. Behavioural Processes,142, 131-137.
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Surbeck, M., Langergraber, K. E., Fruth, B., Vigilant, L., & Hohmann, G. (2017). Male reproductive skew is higher in bonobos than chimpanzees. Current Biology,27(13), R640-R641.
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Surbeck, M., Boesch, C., Girard-Buttoz, C., Crockford, C., Hohmann, G., & Wittig, R. M. (2017). Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior. American Journal of Primatology,79(6): e22641.
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Surbeck, M., Girard-Buttoz, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Langergraber, K., Zuberbühler, K., Wittig, R. M., & Mundry, R. (2017). Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. Royal Society Open Science,4: 161081.
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Moscovice, L. R., Douglas, P. H., Martinez-Inigo, L., Surbeck, M., Vigilant, L., & Hohmann, G. (2017). Stable and fluctuating social preferences and implications for cooperation among female bonobos at LuiKotale, DRC. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,163(1), 158-172.
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Schamberg, I., Cheney, D. L., Clay, Z., Hohmann, G., & Seyfarth, R. M. (2017). Bonobos use call combinations to facilitate inter-party travel recruitment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,71(4): 75.
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Jaeggi, A. V., Moscovice, L. R., Goldstone, L. G., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2017). Reciprocity can explain grooming, but not other forms of cooperation, among female bonobos at LuiKotale, DRC. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,162(S64), 229-229.
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Behringer, V., Stevens, J. M. G., Leendertz, F. H., Hohmann, G., & Deschner, T. (2017). Validation of a method for the assessment of urinary neopterin levels to monitor health status in non-human-primate species. Frontiers in Physiology,8: 51.
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Bondjengo, N., Kitengie, G., Musibono, D., Lubini, C., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2017). Presence of alkaloids and cyanogenic glycosides in fruits consumed by sympatric bonobos and the Nkundo people at LuiKotale/Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo and its relationship to food choice. African Primates,12, 9-22.
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Douglas, P. H., Ngonga Ngomo, A.-C., & Hohmann, G. (2017). A novel approach for dominance assessment in gregarious species: ADAGIO. Animal Behaviour,123, 21-32.
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Hohmann, G. (2017). Bonobo (Pan Paniscus). In A. Fuentes (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Primatology (pp. 119-125). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
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Surbeck, M., & Hohmann, G. (2017). Affiliations, aggressions and an adoption: Male-male relationships in wild binobos. In B. Hare, & S. Yamamoto (Eds.), Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain and Behaviour (pp. 35-46). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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2016

Oelze, V. M., Fahy, G. E., Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. M., Leinert, V., Lee, K., Eshuis, H., Seiler, N., Wessling, E. G., Head, J. S., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2016). Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes. Journal of Human Evolution,101, 1-16.
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Schamberg, I., Cheney, D. L., Clay, Z., Hohmann, G., & Seyfarth, R. M. (2016). Call combinations, vocal exchanges and interparty movement in wild bonobos. Animal Behaviour,122, 109-116.
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Madinda, N. F., Ehlers, B., Wertheim, J. O., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bergl, R. A., Boesch, C., Akonkwa, D. B. M., Eckardt, W., Fruth, B., Gillespie, T. R., Gray, M., Hohmann, G., Karhemere, S., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K. E., Muyembe, J.-J., Nishuli, R., Pauly, M., Petrzelkova, K. J., Robbins, M. M., Todd, A., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T. S., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., Peeters, M., Leendertz, F. H., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2016). Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of merkel cell polyomavirus infecting african great apes. Journal of Virology,90(19), 8531-8541.
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Oelze, V. M., Douglas, P. H., Stephens, C. R., Behringer, V., Surbeck, M., Richards, M. P., Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2016). The steady state great ape? Long term isotopic records reveal the effects of season, social rank and reproductive status on bonobo feeding behaviour. PLoS One,11(9): e0162091.
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Behringer, V., Wudy, S. A., Blum, W. F., Stevens, J. M. G., Rehmer, T., Boesch, C., & Hohmann, G. (2016). Sex differences in age-related decline of urinary insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in adult bonobos and chimpanzees. Frontiers in endocrinology,7: 118.
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Douglas, P. H., Hohmann, G., Murtagh, R., Thiessen-Bock, R., & Deschner, T. (2016). Mixed messages: Wild female bonobos show high variability in the timing of ovulation in relation to sexual swelling patterns. BMC Evolutionary Biology,16: 140.
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Behringer, V., Stevens, J. M. G., Kivell, T. L., Neufuss, J., Boesch, C., & Hohmann, G. (2016). Within arm's reach: Measuring forearm length to assess growth patterns in captive bonobos and chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,161(1), 37-43.
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2015

Clay, Z., Hohmann, G., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Contest hooting behaviour as a window into social relationships in wild Bonobos. Folia primatologica,86(4), 261-262.
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Fröhlich, M., Kuchenbuch, P., Hohmann, G., Furuichi, T., Wittig, R. M., & Pika, S. (2015). The development of social and spatial independence: Do bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ? Folia primatologica,86(4), 284.
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Surbeck, M., Behringer, V., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Urinary C-peptide levels in male bonobos (Pan paniscus) are related to gregariousness and rank but not to mate competition. Folia primatologica,86(4), 368.
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Hoppe, E., Pauly, M., Gillespie, T. R., Akoua-Koffi, C., Hohmann, G., Fruth, B., Karhemere, S., Madinda, N. F., Mugisha, L., Muyembe, J.-J., Todd, A., Petrzelkova, K. J., Gray, M., Robbins, M. M., Bergl, R. A., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., Boesch, C., Schubert, G., Leendertz, F. H., Ehlers, B., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2015). Multiple cross-species transmission events of human adenoviruses (HAdV) during hominine evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution,32(8), 2072-2084.
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Moscovice, L. R., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Welcome back: Responses of female bonobos (Pan paniscus) to fusions. PLoS One,10(5): e0127305.
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Surbeck, M., Deschner, T., Behringer, V., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Urinary C-peptide levels in male bonobos (Pan paniscus) are related to party size and rank but not to mate competition. Hormones and Behavior,71, 22-30.
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Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Deimel, C., Stevens, J. M., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Differences in life history strategies in bonobos and chimpanzees: Evidence from age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,156(S60), 82-82.
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Douglas, P. H., Hohmann, G., & Deschner, T. (2015). Don't judge a female by her swelling: Variability in the timing of ovulation in relation to sexual swelling patterns in wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology,156(S60), 123-123.
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Moscovice, L. R., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Social bonds without genetic ties? A new framework for characterizing social relationships among female bonobos (Pan paniscus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology,156(S60), 230-230.
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Beaune, D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2015). Can fruiting plants control animal behaviour and seed dispersal distance? In B. Hare, & S. Yamamoto (Eds.), Bonobo cognition and behaviour (pp. 113-128). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill.
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Beaune, D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2015). Can fruiting plants control animal behaviour and seed dispersal distance? Behaviour,152(3-4), 359-374.
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Surbeck, M., & Hohmann, G. (2015). Social preferences influence the short-term exchange of social grooming among male bonobos. Animal Cognition,18(2), 573-579.
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2014

Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Deimel, C., Stevens, J., & Hohmann, G. (2014). Age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels suggest differences in puberty onset and divergent life history strategies in bonobos and chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior,66(3), 525-533.
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Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Murtagh, R., Stevens, J. M., & Hohmann, G. (2014). Age-related changes in thyroid hormone levels of bonobos and chimpanzees indicate heterochrony in development. Journal of Human Evolution,66(1), 83-88.
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Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Murtagh, R., Stevens, J. M., & Hohmann, G. (2014). In bonobos and chimpanzees age-related changes in urinary thyroid hormones indicate heterochrony in their development. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,153(S58), 75-76.
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Behringer, V., Stevens, J. M. G., Hohmann, G., Möstl, E., Selzer, D., & Deschner, T. (2014). Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans. PLoS One,9(9): e108664.
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Wilson, M. L., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Furuichi, T., Gilby, I. C., Hashimoto, C., Hobaiter, C. L., Hohmann, G., Itoh, N., Koops, K., Lloyd, J. N., Matsuzawa, T., Mitani, J. C., Mjungu, D. C., Morgan, D., Muller, M. N., Mundry, R., Nakamura, M., Pruetz, J., Pusey, A. E., Riedel, J., Sanz, C., Schel, A. M., Simmons, N., Waller, M., Watts, D. P., White, F., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., & Wrangham, R. W. (2014). Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature,513(7518), 414-417.
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2013

Beaune, D., Fruth, B., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., & Bretagnolle, F. (2013). Doom of the elephant-dependent trees in a Congo tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management,295, 109-117.
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Beaune, D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., Surbeck, M., Bourson, C., & Fruth, B. (2013). The bonobo – dialium positive interactions: Seed dispersal mutualism. American Journal of Primatology,75(4), 394-403.
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Beaune, D., Bollache, L., Musuyu Muganza, D., Bretagnolle, F., Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Artificial germination activation of Dialium corbisieri by imitation of ecological process. Journal of Sustainable Forestry,32(6), 565-575.
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Beaune, D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Bourson, C., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2013). Ecological services performed by the bonobo (Pan paniscus): Seed dispersal effectiveness in tropical forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology,29(5), 367-380.
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Beaune, D., Bretagnolle, F., Bollache, L., Hohmann, G., Surbeck, M., & Fruth, B. (2013). Seed dispersal strategies and the threat of defaunation in a Congo forest. Biodiversity and Conservation,22(1), 225-238.
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Behringer, V., Borchers, C., Deschner, T., Möstl, E., Selzer, D., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences. PLoS One,8(4): e60773.
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Behringer, V., Deschner, T., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Growing up in the light of endocrinology: Life history features of Bonobos and Chimpanzees. Folia primatologica,84, 248.
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Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2013). The nature of the Bonobo society: A case study on the learning process of Primatologists. Folia primatologica,84, 274.
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Schubert, G., Vigilant, L., Boesch, C., Klenke, R., Langergraber, K. E., Mundry, R., Surbeck, M., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Co–residence between males and their mothers and grandmothers is more frequent in bonobos than chimpanzees. PLoS One,8(12): e83870.
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Surbeck, M., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Intersexual dominance relationships and the influence of leverage on the outcome of conflicts in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,67(11), 1767-1780.
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Surbeck, M., Deschner, T., Weltring, A., & Hohmann, G. (2013). Cost of male mate competition in bonobos. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,150(Suppl. 56), 267.
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2012

Behringer, V., Hohmann, G., Stevens, J. M. G., Weltring, A., & Deschner, T. (2012). Adrenarche in bonobos (Pan paniscus): Evidence from ontogenetic changes in urinary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels. Journal of Endocrinology,214(1), 55-65.
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Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., Head, J., Hohmann, G., Junker, J., Kouakou, C. Y., Kuehl, H., Leendertz, F., Leinert, V., Moebius, Y., Murai, M., Oelze, V., Rabanal, L., Robbins, M., Vergnes, V., & Wagner, O. J. J.(2012).Pan African Programme. The cultured chimpanzee. Guidelines for research and data collection. Max Planck Gesellschaft. Wild Chimpanzee Foundation.
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Surbeck, M., Deschner, T., Weltring, A., & Hohmann, G. (2012). Social correlates of variation in urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos (Pan paniscus). Hormones and Behavior,62(1), 27-35.
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Surbeck, M., Deschner, T., Schubert, G., Weltring, A., & Hohmann, G. (2012). Mate competition, testosterone and intersexual relationships in bonobos, Pan paniscus. Animal Behaviour,83(3), 659-669.
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Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Möstl, E., Selzer, D., & Hohmann, G. (2012). Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos. Physiology & Behavior,105(2), 476-482.
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Deschner, T., Fuller, B. T., Oelze, V. M., Boesch, C., Hublin, J.-J., Mundry, R., Richards, M. P., Ortmann, S., & Hohmann, G. (2012). Identification of energy consumption and nutritional stress by isotopic and elemental analysis of urine in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry,26(1), 69-77.
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Beaune, D., Bollache, L., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., & Bretagnolle, F. (2012). Density-dependent effect affecting elephant seed-dispersed tree recruitment (Irvingia gabonensis) in Congo Forest. Pachyderm,52, 97-100. Retrieved from http://www.pachydermjournal.org/index.php/pachy/article/view/299/207.
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2011

Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2011). Is blood thicker than water? In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 61-76). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
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Oelze, V. M., Fuller, B. T., Richards, M. P., Fruth, B., Surbeck, M., Hublin, J.-J., & Hohmann, G. (2011). Exploring the contribution and significance of animal protein in the diet of bonobos by stable isotope ratio analysis of hair. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,108(24), 9792-9797.
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Schubert, G., Stoneking, C. J., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Eckhardt, N., Hohmann, G., Langergraber, K., Lukas, D., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Male-mediated gene flow in patrilocal primates. PLoS One,6(7): e21514.
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Surbeck, M., Mundry, R., & Hohmann, G. (2011). Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences,278(1705), 590-598.
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2010

Deschner, T., Fuller, B. T., Oelze, V., Ortmann, S., Richards, M. P., & Hohmann, G. (2010). Monitoring nutritional stress with urinary delta N-15 and c/n ratios in captive bonobos. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,141(S50), 93-93.
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Fowler, A., & Hohmann, G. (2010). Cannibalism in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Lui Kotale. American Journal of Primatology,72(6), 509-514.
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Hofreiter, M., Kreuz, E., Eriksson, J., Schubert, G., & Hohmann, G. (2010). Vertebrate DNA in fecal samples from bonobos and gorillas: Evidence for meat consumption or artefact? PLoS One,5(2): e9419.
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Hohmann, G., Potts, K., N'Guessan, A. K., Fowler, A., Mundry, R., Ganzhorn, J. U., & Ortmann, S. (2010). Plant foods consumed by Pan: Exploring the variation of nutritional ecology across Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,141(3), 476-485.
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2009

Hohmann, G. (2009). The diets of non-human primates: Frugivory, food processing, and food sharing. In J.-J. Hublin (Ed.), The evolution of hominin diets: integrating approaches to the study of palaeolithic subsistence (pp. 1-14). Berlin [u.a.]: Springer.
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Hohmann, G., Mundry, R., & Deschner, T. (2009). The relationship between socio-sexual behavior and salivary cortisol in bonobos: Tests of the tension regulation hypothesis. American Journal of Primatology,71(3), 223-232.
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Surbeck, M., Fowler, A., Deimel, C., & Hohmann, G. (2009). Evidence for the consumption of arboreal, diurnal primates by bonobos (Pan paniscus). American Journal of Primatology,71(2), 171-174.
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2008

Clauss, M., Streich, W. J., Nunn, C. L., Ortmann, S., Hohmann, G., Schwarm, A., & Hummel, J. (2008). The influence of natural diet composition, food intake level, and body size on ingesta passage in primates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology,150(3), 274-281.
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Deschner, T., Kratzsch, J., & Hohmann, G. (2008). Urinary C-Peptide as a method for monitoring body mass changes in captive Bonobos (Pan Paniscus). Hormones and Behavior,54(5), 620-626.
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Dittami, J., Katina, S., Möstl, E., Eriksson, J., Machatschke, I. H., & Hohmann, G. (2008). Urinary androgens and cortisol metabolites in field-sampled bonobos (Pan paniscus). General and Comparative Endocrinology,155(3), 552-557.
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Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2008). New records on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Folia Primatologica,79(2), 103-110.
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Surbeck, M., & Hohmann, G. (2008). Primate hunting by bonobos at Luikotale, Salonga National Park. Current Biology,18(19), R906-R907.
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2007

Hohmann, G. (2007). Researchers fight poaching with presence, not guns. Nature,447(7148), 1052-1052.
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McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F., Beuerlein, M. M., Vrancken, D., Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2007). Prospects for bonobo insectivory: Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology,28(6), 1237-1252.
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2006

D'Amour, D. E., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2006). Evidence of leopard predation on bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica,77(3), 212-217.
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Eriksson, J., Siedel, H., Lukas, D., Kayser, M., Erler, A., Hashimoto, C., Hohmann, G., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2006). Y-chromosome analysis confirms highly sex-biased dispersal and suggests a low male effective population size in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology,15(4), 939-949.
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Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2006). Social grease for females? Same sex genital contacts in wild bonobos. In V. Sommer, & P. L. Vasey (Eds.), Homosexual Behaviour in Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective (pp. 294-315). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., Beuerlein, M. M., & McGrew, W. C. (2006). Grooming hand clasp by bonobos of Lui Kotal, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pan African News,13(1), 6-8.
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Hohmann, G., Fowler, A., Sommer, V., & Ortmann, S. (2006). Frugivory and gregariousness of Salonga bonobos and Gashaka chimpanzees: The influence of abundance and nutritional quality of fruit. In G. Hohmann, M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Feeding ecology in Apes and other Primates (pp. 123-159). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Pr.
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Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2006).Feeding ecology in apes and other primates. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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Robbins, M. M., & Hohmann, G. (2006). Primate feeding ecology: An integrative approach. In G. Hohmann, M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Feeding Ecology in Apes and other Primates (pp. 1-13). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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2005

Marshall, A. J., & Hohmann, G. (2005). Urinary testosterone levels of wild male bonobos (Pan paniscus) in the Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology,65(1), 87-92.
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Nia, R., Paper, D., Franz, G., Essien, E., Musuyu Muganza, D., & Hohmann, G. (2005). Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Manniophyton fulvum. Acta Horticulturae,678, 97-101.
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2004

Boubli, J. P., Eriksson, J., Wich, S., Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2004). Mesoscale transect sampling of trees in the Lomako-Yekokora interfluvium Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biodiversity and Conservation,13, 2399-2417.
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Eriksson, J., Hohmann, G., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2004). Rivers influence the population genetic structure of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecology,13(11), 3425-3435.
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2003

Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2003). Culture in Bonobos? Between-species and within-species variation in behavior. Current Anthropology,44(4), 563-571.
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Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2003). Intra- and inter-sexual aggression by bonobos in the context of mating. Behaviour,140, 1389-1413. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4536099.
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Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2003). Lui Kotal - A new site for field research on Bonobos in the Salonga National Park. Pan Africa News,10(2), 25-27.
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2002

Boesch, C., Hohmann, G., & Marchant, L. F. (Eds.). (2002).Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pr.
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Eriksson, J., Hohmann, G., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2002). Phylogeography and genetic diversity of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology,117(Suppl. 34), 68-68.
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Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2002). How bonobos handle hunts and harvests: Why share food? In Boesch, Christophe; Hohmann, Gottfried; Marchant, Linda F. (Ed.), Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (pp. 231-243). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2002). Dynamics in social organization of bonobos (Pan paniscus). In Boesch, Christophe; Hohmann, Gottfried; Marchant, Linda F. (Ed.), Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (pp. 138-150). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Reichert, K. E., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J. K., Boesch, C., & Hohmann, G. (2002). What females tell males about their reproductive status: Are morphological and behavioural cues reliable signals of ovulation in bonobos (Pan paniscus)? Ethology,108(7), 583-600.
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2000

Hohmann, G. (2000). Association and social interactions between strangers and residents in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Primates,42(1), 91-99.
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Hohmann, G., & Fruth, B. (2000). Use and function of genital contacts among female bonobos. Animal Behaviour,60(1), 107-120.
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1999

Hohmann G, Gerloff U, Tautz D, Fruth B, 1999. Social bonds and genetic ties: kinship, association and affiliation in a community of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Behaviour 136, 1219-1235.

Gerloff U, Hartung B, Fruth B, Hohmann G, Tautz D, 1999. Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and control of paternity in a wild living community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analyses of fecal samples, Proc Royal Soc B, 266:1189-1195.

Gagneux P, Wills C, Gerloff U, Tautz D, Morin P, Boesch C, Fruth B, Hohmann G, Ryder O, Woodruff D. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominids. PNAS, 96:5077-5082.
 

1998

Fruth B, Hohmann G, McGrew WC, 1998. The Pan species. In Dolhinow P, Fuentes A (eds), The Nonhuman Primates, pp 64-71, Mayfield Publ. Comp., Mountain View, London, Toronto.
 

1996

Fruth B, Hohmann G, 1996. Nest building behavior in the great apes: the great leap forward ? In McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T (eds), Great Ape Societies, pp 225-240, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Hohmann G, Fruth B, 1996. Food sharing and status in unprovisioned bonobos. In Wiessner P, Schiefenhoevel W (eds), Food and the Status Quest, pp 47-67, Berghahn, Providence & Oxford.
 

1995

Hohmann G, Fruth B, 1995. Loud calls in Great apes: sex differences and social correlates. In Zimmermann E, Newman JD, Jürgens U, Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication, pp 161-184, Plenum Press, New York & London.

Gerloff U, Schlötterer C, Rassmann K, Rambold I, Hohmann G, Fruth B, Tautz D, 1995. Amplification of hypervariable simple sequence repeats (microsatelites) from excremental DNA of wild living bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molecular Ecol 4:515-518.
 

1994

Fruth B, Hohmann G, 1994. Comparative analyses of nest-building behavior in bonobos and chimpanzees. In Wrangham RW, McGrew WC, de Waal FB, Heltne PG (eds) Chimpanzee Cultures, pp 109-128, Harvard Univ. Press Cambridge & London.

Hohmann G, Fruth B, 1994. Structure and use of distance calls in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Int J Primat 15:767-782.

Fruth B, Hohmann G, 1994. Nests: living artefacts of recent apes ? Current Anthropology 35:310-311.
 

1993

Fruth B, Hohmann G, 1993. Ecological and behavioural aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology 94:113-126.

Hohmann G, Fruth B, 1993. Field observations on meat sharing among bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia primatol 60:225-229.
 

1991

Hohmann G, 1991. Comparative investigation of vocal communication in four Old World monkeys: analyses of age- and sex-specific patterns of vocal behaviour, Folia primatol 56:133-156.

Hohmann G, Vogl L, 1991. Loud calls of male Nilgiri langurs: age-, individual-, and population-specific differences. Int J Primat 12:503-524.
 

1990

Hohmann G, 1990. Preliminary investigation of male loud calls of purple-faced leaf monkeys (Presbytis senex). Folia primatol 55:200-206.
 

1989

Hohmann G, 1989. Vocal communication in wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Primates 30:325-345.

Hohmann G, 1989. Comparative study of vocal communication in two Asian leaf monkeys, Presbytis johnii and P. entellus. Folia primatol. 52:27-57.

Hohmann G, 1989. New evidence for hybridisation in Presbytis johnii and P. entellus. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 117:33-37.

Hohmann G, 1989. Group fission in Nilgiri langurs (Presbytis johnii), Int J Primat 10:441-454.
 

1988

Hohmann G, 1988. A simple case of tool use in wild lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Primates 29:565-567.

Hohmann G, 1988. Ananlyses of loud calls provide new evidence for hybridization between two Asian leaf monkeys (Presbytis johnii, P. entellus). Folia primatol 51:209-213.
 

1985

Hohmann G, Herzog M, 1985. Vocal communication in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Folia primatol 45:148-178.