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Contact

Department of Primatology

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig

phone: +49 (0)341 3550 - 200
fax: +49 (0)341 3550 - 299


Martha M. Robbins

Research Scientist

Department of Primatology
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig
Germany

Phone: +49 (341) 3550-0
E-mail: robbins@[>>> Please remove the brackets! <<<]eva.mpg.de

Research Interests
Curriculum Vitae
Media
​​​​​​​Publications

Research Interests

My overarching research interest is the evolution of sociality.  For over 25 years, my research has focused on the causes and consequences of sociality in one of our closest relatives, the gorilla.   There are two species of gorillas and four subspecies. Gorillas are a particularly interesting species because they occupy a wide range of habitats across Africa and exhibit variation in their social structure, feeding ecology, and life history patterns. I am examining topics related to gorillas’ ecology, social behavior, reproductive strategies, population dynamics, endocrinology, and genetics.

I started my research career in the early 1990’s at the Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, where I conducted my PhD research on the mountain gorillas initially habituated by Dian Fossey in the late 1960’s. In 1998, I began my ongoing long-term research project in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, where I am studying the other population of mountain gorillas. This is the second longest running research project on habituated gorillas in Africa. In 2005, I began a long-term project of western gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon, where we are studying one group of habituated western gorillas. It has been a wonderful experience to observe habituated gorillas over such a long time period and in so many different forests inhabited by gorillas. It is also important to conduct research that can contribute to conservation efforts to protect these critically endangered great apes.

Specific topics include:    

Feeding Ecology:  How does the diet of gorillas vary according to food availability?  How does food availability influence ranging patterns and habitat utilization?  

Reproductive Strategies and Social Behavior:  What strategies are used by males and females to maximize their reproductive success?  How do dispersal patterns influence social behavior and group dynamics?  How do ecological conditions influence social relationships?  How do social relationships vary among males and females?   

Population Dynamics:  How do populations change in size and structure over time?  How do particular factors influence the changes in a population, in particular, the ecological conditions, levels of human disturbance, as well as intrinsic factors?  How do life history variables differ among individuals and what impact does this have on reproductive success?  

Genetics:  In collaboration with the genetics lab of our department, we are able to address questions concerning paternity, relatedness, as well as group size and structure.  

Conservation: While science alone will not lead to protection of endangered gorillas, research should be an integrated part of any conservation strategy. Any research on endangered species should involve a conservation component.  Therefore, I have collaborated with conservation groups working in the Virunga Volcanoes and Bwindi to carry out censuses of the gorillas so we can effectively monitor changes in their population size and the impacts of conservation strategies.  Additionally, we conduct projects concerning their demography and patterns of habitat utilization, which provide useful information to assist with park management practices.  I also run a collaborative conservation education program (the Bwindi Ape Conservation Education Partnership, with the North Carolina Zoo and the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo) in which we work with four primary schools bordering Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.    

Curriculum Vitae

Education

  • Ph.D. - Zoology, University of Wisconsin, May 1996.
  • M.S. - Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, December 1993.
  • B.S. - Biology and Psychology (double major), University of South Carolina, May 1989

Academic Employment

1998-presentResearch Associate, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
1997-1998Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Gustavus Adolphus College
1995-1997Lecturer, Depts of Psychology, Zoology, & Anthropology, University of Wisconsin

Management Experience

1998-presentLeader of the Gorilla Research Group in the Department of Primatology,
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
1998-presentDirector of long term research project of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.
2005-2014 Co-director of Loango Ape Project, Loango National Park, Gabon.
2014-present Director of Loango Gorilla Project, Loango National Park, Gabon.
2008-present

Established a conservation education program,’ Bwindi Ape Conservation Education Partnership’, with four primary schools, Ruhija District, Uganda

Established collaborative research projects with several NGO’s, research institutions, and national park services including:
  • Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International
  • International Gorilla Conservation Program
  • Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Program
  • Mbeli Bai Gorilla Project
  • Bai Hokou Gorilla Program. 

Teaching Experience

2007-present Lecturer, International Max Planck Research School for Human Origins
1997-1998Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN
Taught four upper level courses: Animal Behavior, Evolution, Ecology, & Conservation Biology
Taught one introductory level course: “Evolution, Ecology, & Behavior”
1995-1997University of Wisconsin, WI, USA
Designed and taught the following courses:  ‘Comparative Perspectives on Social Behavior’, ‘Ethology’, and ‘Primate Behavioral Ecology’

Organized and taught the following to national park staff and conservation partners:

July 2016Basics of Mountain Gorillas - Training Workshop, Ruhija, Uganda.
March 2009 Gorilla Behavior and Habituation -Training Workshop, Ruhija, Uganda.
June 2008Gorilla Behavior and Tourism -Training Workshop, Ruhija, Uganda.
January 2008Gorilla Behavior - Training Workshop, Muzanzi, Rwanda.
June 2008Gorilla Behavior and Tourism -Training Workshop, Ruhija, Uganda.
November 2007 Gorilla Demography - Training Workshop, Musanze, Rwanda.

Grants & Awards

2016-2017 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Research as a component of tourism development for Western Gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon’
$92,450
2016-2017 Tusk Trust,
Conservation and Research of Western Gorillas in Loango National Park,
$25,000
2015-2016 Tusk Trust
Conservation and Research of Western Gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon
$23,250
2010-2016 Berggorilla Regenwald Direkthlife/Mondberge
Conservation Education Program for four primary schools neighbouring Bwindi Annual contribution of € 7,000
2015 Berggorilla Regenwald Direkthilfe
Renovation of research camp in Loango National Park, Gabon
€ 20,000
2015-2016 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Conservation, Research and Tourism of Critically Endangered Western Gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon’
$98,800
2013-2015 National Geographic Society
‘Why so big?: Reproductive success and body size in male & female mountain gorillas’
€ 20,000.
2014-2015 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Integrating Research and Tourism as Conservation Strategies for critically endangered western gorillas in Loango National Park
Gabon’
$57,560
2012-2013 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Conservation, Research, and Tourism of Western Gorillas and Central Chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon’
$67,970
2012-2014 Great Ape Education Project
collaborative conservation education project with UNITE, Kassisi Project, and Nature for Kids that produced 3 conservation videos for children and conducted outreach activities with 8 primary schools around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park
received €19,000 of a € 260,000 overall grant from the Adessium Foundation
2011-2012 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Conservation and Research of Western Gorillas in Loango National Park, Gabon’
$78,755
2008-2009 United States Fish & Wildlife Service Great Ape Conservation Fund
‘Prospects for Growth: Developing Applied Conservation Strategies through Integrative Ecological Modeling of Bwindi Mountain Gorillas’
$41,249
2006-2007 National Geographic Society
‘Prospects for Growth:  Assessment of habitat utilization, habitat availability, population trends and genetic variability of Bwindi mountain gorillas’
$18,930
2005-2006 Leakey Foundation
‘Strategies of diet selectivity and habitat utilization in mountain gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda’
$12,000
1995 Sigma Xi- Wisconsin Chapter Graduate Research Award
Semi-finalist
1994 Chicago Zoological Society Conservation & Research Grant
(not utilized due to political instability in Rwanda)
1991-1994 National Science Foundation Graduate Student Fellowship
(stipend and tuition).

Professional Services

Reviewer for the following journals and publishers:
  • Animal Behaviour  
  • Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology,
  • American Journal of Physical Anthropology,
  • American Journal of Primatology,
  • International Journal of Primatology
  • Animal Cognition
  • Behavioral Ecology,
  • University of Chicago Press
  • Cambridge University Press
Reviewer for the following granting agencies:
  • National Science Foundation
  • the Leakey Foundation
  • National Geographic Society.
Professional societies:
  • International Primate Society
  • German Primate Society
  • Regular contributor of articles for Gorilla Journal (publication of Berggorilla Regenwald Direkthilfe)
  • GRASP (Great Ape Survival Partnership; UNEP) Scientific Council, 2013-present
  • Primates, Advisory Board member, 2012-2017
  • IUCN Section on Great Apes committee member, 2002-present
  • Evaluator for IUCN Red List Assessment of Gorilla beringei, 2008
  • Evaluator for IUCN Red List Assessment of Gorilla beringei beringei, 2015
  • Wildlife Conservation Society Fellow
  • Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Program Conservation Advisory Committee Member, 2009-2011
  • Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Program – Science Advisor, 2012-2013
  • Art of Conservation, Advisory Council Member, 2012-2013

Conference & Workshops Organized

August 2014 Co-organizer for ‘Understanding the Variability of Gorilla Social Structure’, symposium at International Primatology Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam.
June 2014 Co-organizer for ‘Apes Across Africa’ Workshop, Fort Portal, Uganda.
Goal was to bring together early career African ape conservationists and researchers for a four day workshop of talks, discussions, training sessions, and field site visits. Meeting was attended by fifty participants, including representatives from 14 African countries.
November 2013 Co-organizer for ‘Gorillas Across Africa’ workshop, Musanze, Rwanda.
Goal was to bring together early career African conservationists and researchers working with gorillas for a fourday workshop of talks, discussions, training sessions, and field site visits.  Meeting was attended by forty participants, including representatives from 8 African countries.
June 2011 Co-organizer for ‘Gorillas Across Africa’ workshop, Ruhija, Uganda.
Goal was to bring together early career African conservationists and researchers working with gorillas for a four day workshop of talks, discussions, training sessions, and field site visits. Meeting was attended by forty participants, including representatives from 7 African countries.
August 2009 Co-organizer for ‘Assessing the Prospects for Growth of the Bwindi Mountain Gorilla Population’ workshop, Kabale, Uganda.
Goals were to assess the relative effects of potential management actions on population growth and establish future priorities for gorilla research & management strategies.
Meeting was attended by +40 participants from six organizations working in and around Bwindi and beyond.
June 2008 Organizer for ‘Research & Conservation of Bwindi Mountain Gorillas Workshop’ , Ruhija, Uganda.
Meeting consisted of presentations and discussions of ongoing research in Bwindi.  Attended by +30 participants from six organizations working in and around Bwindi. 
August 2004 Co-organizer for ‘Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates’ conference, Leipzig, Germany. 
Goal was to bring together more than 20 researchers to present findings and discuss future avenues of research concerning feeding ecology of great apes.
January 1999 Co-organizer for ‘Mountain Gorillas of Karisoke:  Research Synthesis and Potentials’, Leipzig, Germany. 
Goal was to have 15 researchers present findings and discuss future avenues for research of Virunga mountain gorillas.

Invited Workshops/ Symposia

August 2016Plasticity and individual variation: evolutionary significance and conservation consequences, Symposium at International Primatology Conference, Chicago.
May 2014 Western Gorilla Research & Conservation Symposium, Libreville, Gabon.
September 2013Great Ape Summit, Jackson Hole, WY, 
May 2013Great Ape Conservation Workshop, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.
April 2013Reconstructing Dietary Adaptations in Human Evolution, Tempe, AZ.
August 2012Mountain Gorillas Then and Now: Celebrating 45 Years of Research at the Karisoke Research Center, Symposium at International Primatology Conference, Cancun, Mexico.
August 2012Flexibility in Social Relationships in Female-dispersal Species, Symposium at International Primatology Conference, Cancun, Mexico.
October 2010Aggression & Peacemaking in an Evolutionary Context, Lorenz Workshop, Leiden, Netherlands.
September 2008Leakey Foundation 40th Anniversary  - Primatology symposium, San Francisco, CA.
October 2007Conservation for Migratory Species Gorilla Meeting, Paris, France.
May 2007Rwandan Biodiversity Conference, Kigali, Rwanda.
May 2005 Great Ape Conservation Workshop, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Media

Documentaries

2012Mitt I Naturen Uganda (The Middle of Nature – Uganda)
One hour of a four part series about Uganda focusing on Bwindi mountain gorillas and my research.  This is the longest running and most popular nature show in Sweden.
2010Mountain Gorilla. BBC.
3 one hour long documentaries, focusing half on Bwindi mountain gorillas, my research, and conservation activities. 
2009Berggorillas – Ugandas sanfte Riesen (Mountain gorillas – Uganda’s gentle giants). ARTE.
45 minute documentary focused on Bwindi mountain gorillas, my research, and links between conservation and the surrounding communities.
2009Among the Apes. Firefly Productions, aired on BBC 5. 
One hour documentary of a four part series about wild primates, focusing on Bwindi mountain gorillas.
2008 The Gorilla King. Tigress Films. 
Interview in a one hour documentary using the life of a silverback gorilla to explain the conservation issues of mountain gorillas. 

Printed articles & photographs

2015‘The Basics about Mountain Gorillas’:  30 page booklet for distribution to Uganda Wildlife Authority park staff to improve knowledge about gorillas.
2015Runner up in Royal Society photo contest.
August 2015African Geographic, photos for article on Gabon tourism by Nick Tims.
2014 Cover Photograph Primate Ethnographies, KB Strier (ed), Pearson Press.
2011Cover Photograph Primates in Perspective, 2nd edition.  Campbell, CJ, Fuentes, A, MacKinnon, KC, Bearder, S, & Stumpf, RM.  Oxford (eds) University Press, Oxford
2015Photographs in: State of the Apes:  Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation. H. Rainer, ed. Cambridge University Press.
2008Photographsin Max Planck Research Magazine.  ‘Rukina’s Remarkable Family’ by Klaus Wilhelm.
2008Photographs in: Illustreret Videnbskab  (Danish ‘Science Illustrated).  Rivaler på tålt ophold  (Tolerated Rivals).
2008 Photographs in: German Psychology Today. ‘Remarkable Rukina’ by Klaus Wilhelm.
2005 Photographs in: World Atlas of Great Apes. Caldecott, J, Miles, L. (eds).University California Press.

 

Publications

2020

Gillespie, T. R., Leendertz, F. H., The Great Ape Health Consortium, including authors, Deschner, T., Robbins, M. M., Wittig, R. M., & & others (2020). COVID-19: protect great apes during human pandemics. Nature,579, 497-497.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Gogarten, J. F., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Nunn, C. L., Ulrich, M., Saiepour, N., Nielsen, H. V., Deschner, T., Fichtel, C., Kappeler, P. M., Knauf, S., Müller-Klein, N., Ostner, J., Robbins, M. M., Sangmaneedet, S., Schülke, O., Surbeck, M., Wittig, R. M., Sliwa, A., Strube, C., Leendertz, F. H., Roos, C., & Noll, A. (2020). Metabarcoding of eukaryotic parasite communities describes diverse parasite assemblages spanning the primate phylogeny. Molecular Ecology,20(1), 204-215.
Open Access    DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   

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Gogarten, J. F., Rühlemann, M., Archie, E., Tung, J., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bang, C., Deschner, T., Muyembe-Tamfun, J.-J., Robbins, M. M., Schubert, G., Surbeck, M., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., Baines, J. F., Franke, A., Leendertz, F. H., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2020). Primate phageomes are structured by superhost phylogeny and environment. bioRxiv.
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Granjon, A.-C., Robbins, M. M., Arinaitwe, J., Cranfield, M. R., Eckardt, W., Mburanumwe, I., Musana, A., Robbins, A. M., Roy, J., Sollmann, R., Vigilant, L., & Hickey, J. R. (2020). Estimating abundance and growth rates in a wild mountain gorilla population. Animal Conservation,23(4), 455-465.
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Kalan, A. K., Kulik, L., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Haas, F., Dieguez, P., Barratt, C. D., Abwe, E. E., Agbor, A., Angedakin, S., Aubert, F., Ayimisin, A. E., Bailey, E., Bessone, M., Brazzola, G., Buh, V. E., Chancellor, R., Cohen, H., Coupland, C., Curran, B., Danquah, E., Deschner, T., Dowd, D., Eno-Nku, M., Fay, M. J., Goedmakers, A., Granjon, A.-C., Head, J., Hedwig, D., Hermans, V., Jeffery, K. J., Jones, S., Junker, J., Kadam, P., Kambi, M., Kienast, I., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K. E., Lapuente, J., Larson, B., Lee, K., Leinert, V., Llana, M., Marrocoli, S., Meier, A., Morgan, B., Morgan, D., Neil, E., Nicholl, S., Normand, E., Ormsby, L. J., Pacheco, L., Piel, A., Preece, J., Robbins, M. M., Rundus, A., Sanz, C., Sommer, V., Stewart, F., Tagg, N., Tennie, C., Vergnes, V., Welsh, A., Wessling, E. G., Willie, J., Wittig, R. M., Yuh, Y. G., Zuberbühler, K., & Kühl, H. S. (2020). Environmental variability supports chimpanzee behavioural diversity. Nature Communications,11(1): 4451.
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Manguette, M., Breuer, T., Robeyst, J., Kandza, V. H., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Infant survival in western lowland gorillas after voluntary dispersal by pregnant females. Primates,61, 743-749.
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Manguette, M., Robbins, A. M., Breuer, T., Stokes, E. J., Parnell, R. J., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Female dispersal patterns influenced by male tenure duration and group size in western lowland gorillas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,74(7): 81.
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Ostrofsky, K. R., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Fruit-feeding and activity patterns of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,173(1), 3-20.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Robbins, M. M. (2020). Assessing attitudes towards gorilla conservation via employee interviews (advance online). American Journal of Primatology, e23191.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Seiler, N., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Ecological correlates of space use patterns in wild western lowland gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,82(9): e23168.
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Seiler, N., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Using long-term ranging patterns to assess within-group and between-group competition in wild mountain gorillas. BMC Ecology,20: 40.
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Watson, S. K., Heesen, R., Hedwig, D., Robbins, M. M., & Townsend, S. W. (2020). An exploration of Menzerath's law in wild mountain gorilla vocal sequences. Biology Letters,16(10): 20200380.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Wright, E., Galbany, J., McFarlin, S. C., Ndayishimiye, E., Stoinski, T. S., & Robbins, M. M. (2020). Dominance rank but not body size influences female reproductive success in mountain gorillas. PLoS ONE,15(6): e0233235.
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2019

Akayezu, P., van Duren, I. C., Groen, T. A., Grueter, C. C., & Robbins, M. M. (2019). Abundance and spatial distribution of the main food species for mountain gorillas in the Virunga Massif, Rwanda. Biodiversity and Conservation,28(13), 3597-3620.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Brakes, P., Dall, S. R. X., Aplin, L. M., Bearhop, S., Carroll, E. L., Ciucci, P., Fishlock, V., Ford, J. K. B., Garland, E. C., Keith, S. A., McGregor, P. K., Mesnick, S. L., Noad, M. J., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Robbins, M. M., Simmonds, M. P., Spina, F., Thornton, A., Wade, P. R., Whiting, M. J., Williams, J., Rendell, L., Whitehead, H., Whiten, A., & Rutz, C. (2019). Animal cultures matter for conservation. Science,363(6431), 1032-1034.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Kalan, A. K., Hohmann, G., Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., McCarthy, M., Agbor, A., Angedakin, S., Bailey, E., Wilungula Balongelwa, C., Bessone, M., Bocksberger, G., Coxe, S. J., Deschner, T., Despres-Einspenner, M.-L., Dieguez, P., Fruth, B., Herbinger, I., Granjon, A.-C., Head, J. S., Kablan, Y. A., Langergraber, K. E., Lotana Lokasola, A., Maretti, G., Marrocoli, S., Mbende, M., Moustgaard, J., N’Goran, P. K., Robbins, M. M., van Schijndel, J., Sommer, V., Surbeck, M., Tagg, N., Willie, J., Wittig, R. M., & Kühl, H. S. (2019). Novelty response of wild African apes to camera traps. Current Biology,29(7), 1211-1217.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Manguette, M., Robbins, A. M., Breuer, T., Stokes, E. J., Parnell, R. J., & Robbins, M. M. (2019). Intersexual conflict influences female reproductive success in a female-dispersing primate. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,73(9): 118.
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Murthy, S., O’Brien, K., Agbor, A., Angedakin, S., Arandjelovic, M., Ayimisin, A. E., Bailey, E., Bergl, R. A., Brazzola, G., Dieguez, P., Eno-Nku, M., Eshuis, H., Fruth, B., Gillespie, T. R., Yuh, Y. G., Gray, M., Herbinger, I., Jones, S., Kehoe, L., Kühl, H. S., Kujirakwinja, D., Lee, K., Madinda, N. F., Mitamba, G., Muhindo, E., Nishuli, R., Ormsby, L. J., Petrzelkova, K. J., Plumptre, A. J., Robbins, M. M., Sommer, V., Ter Heegde, M., Todd, A., Tokunda, R., Wessling, E. G., Jarvis, M. A., Leendertz, F. H., Ehlers, B., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2019). Cytomegalovirus distribution and evolution in hominines. Virus Evolution,5(2): vez015.
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Robbins, M. M., Akantorana, M., Arinaitwe, J., Kabano, P., Kayijamahe, C., Gray, M., Guschanski, K., Richardson, J., Roy, J., Tindimwebwa, V., Vigilant, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2019). Dispersal and reproductive careers of male mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Primates,60(2), 133-142.
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van Casteren, A., Wright, E., Kupczik, K., & Robbins, M. M. (2019). Unexpected hard-object feeding in Western lowland gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,170(3), 433-438.
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Wright, E., Galbany, J., McFarlin, S. C., Ndayishimiye, E., Stoinski, T. S., & Robbins, M. M. (2019). Male body size, dominance rank and strategic use of aggression in a group-living mammal. Animal Behaviour,151, 87-102.
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2018

Adamescu, G. S., Plumptre, A. J., Abernethy, K. A., Polansky, L., Bush, E. R., Chapman, C. A., Shoo, L. P., Fayolle, A., Janmaat, K., Robbins, M. M., Ndangalasi, H. J., Cordeiro, N. J., Gilby, I. C., Wittig, R. M., Breuer, T., Hockemba Breuer-Ndoundou, M., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D. B., Pusey, A. E., Mugerwa, B., Gilagiza, B., Tutin, C., Ewango, C. E., Sheil, D., Dimoto, E., Baya, F., Bujo, F., Ssali, F., Dikangadissi, J.-T., Jeffery, K., Valenta, K., White, L., Masozera, M., Wilson, M. L., Bitariho, R., Ebika, S. T. N., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Mulindahabi, F., & Beale, C. M. (2018). Annual cycles are the most common reproductive strategy in African tropical tree communities. Biotropica,50(3), 417-430.
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Grüter, C. C., Robbins, A. M., Abavandimwe, D., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Stoinski, T. S., & Robbins, M. M. (2018). Quadratic relationships between group size and foraging efficiency in a herbivorous primate. Scientific Reports,8: 16718.
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Habumuremyi, S., Deschner, T., Fawcett, K. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2018). Male-female interactions in multimale groups of mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,80(11): e22910.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Hagemann, L., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Arandjelovic, M., Deschner, T., Lewis, M., Froese, G., & Vigilant, L. (2018). Long‐term group membership and dynamics in a wild western lowland gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) inferred using non‐invasive genetics. American Journal of Primatology,80(8): e22898.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Neufuss, J., Robbins, M. M., Bäumer, J., Humle, T., & Kivell, T. L. (2018). Gait characteristics of vertical climbing in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees. Journal of Zoology,306(2), 129-138.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Neufuss, J., Robbins, M. M., Bäumer, J., Humle, T., & Kivell, T. L. (2018). Manual skills for food processing by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society,127(3), 543-562.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Robbins, M. M. (2018). Being a Good Guest - A Guide for Tourists Visiting Gorillas. Gorilla Journal,56, 11-14.
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Robbins, M. M., & Robbins, A. M. (2018). Variation in the social organization of gorillas: Life history and socioecological perspectives. Evolutionary Anthropology,27(5), 218-233.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Seiler, N., Boesch, C., Stephens, C. R., Ortmann, S., Mundry, R., & Robbins, M. M. (2018). Social and ecological correlates of space use patterns in Bwindi mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,80(4): e22754.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Thompson, N. E., Ostrofsky, K. R., McFarlin, S. C., Robbins, M. M., Stoinski, T. S., & Almécija, S. (2018). Unexpected terrestrial hand posture diversity in wild mountain gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,166(1), 84-94.
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2017

Leeds, A., Lukas, K. E., Kendall, C. J., Slavin, M. A., Ross, E. A., Robbins, M. M., van Weeghel, D., & Bergl, R. A. (2017). Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes. American Journal of Primatology,79(8): e22673.
DOI    BibTeX   Endnote   
Neufuss, J., Robbins, M. M., Baeumer, J., Humle, T., & Kivell, T. L. (2017). Comparison of hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology,164(4), 651-664.
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Seiler, N., Boesch, C., Mundry, R., Stephens, C. R., & Robbins, M. M. (2017). Space partitioning in wild, non-territorial mountain gorillas: The impact of food and neighbours. Royal Society Open Science,4(11), 1-13.
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2016

Breuer, T., Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2016). Sexual coercion and courtship by male western gorillas. Primates,57(1), 29-38.
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Grueter, C. C., Robbins, A. M., Abavandimwe, D., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Ortmann, S., Stoinski, T. S., & Robbins, M. M. (2016). Causes, mechanisms, and consequences of contest competition among female mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Behavioral Ecology,27(3), 766-776.
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Grueter, C. C., Robbins, M. M., Abavandimwe, D., Ortmann, S., Mudakikwa, A., Ndagijimana, F., Vecellio, V., & Stoinski, T. S. (2016). Elevated activity in adult mountain gorillas is related to consumption of bamboo shoots. Journal of Mammalogy,97(6), 1663-1670.
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Habumuremyi, S., Stephens, C. R., Fawcett, K. A., Deschner, T., & Robbins, M. M. (2016). Endocrine assessment of ovarian cycle activity in wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Physiology & Behavior,157, 185-195.
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Imong, I. S., Kühl, H. S., Robbins, M. M., & Mundry, R. (2016). Evaluating the potential effectiveness of alternative management scenarios in ape habitat. Environmental Conservation,43(2), 161-171.
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Janmaat, K., Boesch, C., Byrne, R., Chapman, C., Goné Bi, Z. B., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Wrangham, R., & Polansky, L. (2016). The spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How cognitive adaptations can counteract the ephemeral nature of ripe fruit. American Journal of Primatology,78(6), 626-645.
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Madinda, N. F., Ehlers, B., Wertheim, J. O., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bergl, R. A., Boesch, C., Akonkwa, D. B. M., Eckardt, W., Fruth, B., Gillespie, T. R., Gray, M., Hohmann, G., Karhemere, S., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K. E., Muyembe, J.-J., Nishuli, R., Pauly, M., Petrzelkova, K. J., Robbins, M. M., Todd, A., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T. S., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., Peeters, M., Leendertz, F. H., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2016). Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of merkel cell polyomavirus infecting african great apes. Journal of Virology,90(19), 8531-8541.
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Oelze, V. M., Fahy, G. E., Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. M., Leinert, V., Lee, K., Eshuis, H., Seiler, N., Wessling, E. G., Head, J. S., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2016). Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes. Journal of Human Evolution,101, 1-16.
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Robbins, A. M., Gray, M., Breuer, T., Manguette, M., Stokes, E. J., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2016). Mothers may shape the variations in social organization among gorillas. Royal Society Open Science,3: 160533.
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Robbins, M. M. (2016). Habituierung in Loango = Gorilla habituation for research and tourism in Loango National Park. Gorilla-Journal: Zeitschrift der Berggorilla- & Regenwald-Direkthilfe, 9-9.
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Robbins, M. M., Ando, C., Fawcatt, K. A., Grüter, C. C., Hedwig, D., Iwata, Y., Lodwick, J. L., Masi, S., Salmi, R., Stoinski, T. S., Todd, A., Vercellio, V., & Yamagiwa, J. (2016). Behavioral variation in gorillas: Evidence of potential cultural traits. PLoS One,11(9): e0160483.
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Seiler, N., & Robbins, M. M. (2016). Factors influencing ranging on community land and crop raiding by mountain gorillas. Animal Conservation,19(2), 176-188.
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2015

Ancrenaz, M., Cheyne, S., Humle, T., & Robbins, M. M. (2015). Impacts of industrial agriculture on ape ecology. In H. Rainer, A. White, & Arcus Foundation (Eds.), The state of the apes: Industrial agriculture and ape conservation. Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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D’arc, M., Ayouba, A., Esteban, A., Learn, G. H., Boué, V., Liegeois, F., Etienne, L., Tagg, N., Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Madinda, N. F., Robbins, M. M., Gray, M., Cournil, A., Ooms, M., Letko, M., Simon, V. A., Sharp, P. M., Hahn, B. H., Delaporte, E., Ngole, E. M., & Peeters, M. (2015). Origin of the HIV-1 group O epidemic in western lowland gorillas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,112(11), E1343-E1352.
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De Nys, H. M., Madinda, N. F., Merkel, K., Robbins, M. M., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F. H., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2015). A cautionary note on fecal sampling and molecular epidemiology in predatory wild great apes. American Journal of Primatology,77(8), 833-840.
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Hans, J., Haubner, A., Arandjelovic, M., Bergl, R. A., Fünfstück, T., Gray, M., Morgan, D. B., Robbins, M. M., Sanz, C., & Vigilant, L. (2015). Characterization of MHC class II B polymorphism in multiple populations of wild gorillas using non-invasive samples and next-generation sequencing. American Journal of Primatology,77(11), 1193-1206.
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Hedwig, D., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2015). Audience effects, but not environmental influences, explain variation in gorilla close distance vocalizations. A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. American Journal of Primatology,77(12), 1239-1252.
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Hedwig, D., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2015). Contextual correlates of syntactic variation in mountain and western gorilla close-distance vocalizations: Indications for lexical or phonological syntax? Animal Cognition,18(2), 423-435.
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Hoppe, E., Pauly, M., Gillespie, T. R., Akoua-Koffi, C., Hohmann, G., Fruth, B., Karhemere, S., Madinda, N. F., Mugisha, L., Muyembe, J.-J., Todd, A., Petrzelkova, K. J., Gray, M., Robbins, M. M., Bergl, R. A., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbühler, K., Boesch, C., Schubert, G., Leendertz, F. H., Ehlers, B., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2015). Multiple cross-species transmission events of human adenoviruses (HAdV) during hominine evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution,32(8), 2072-2084.
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Hoppe​, E., Pauly​, M., Robbins, M. M., Gray​, M., Kujirakwinja​, D., Nishuli​, R., Mungu-Akonkwa​, D.-d.-B., Leendertz​, F. H., & Ehlers​, B. (2015). Phylogenomic evidence for recombination of adenoviruses in wild gorillas. Journal of General Virology,96, 3090-3098.
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Masi, S., Mundry, R., Ortmann, S., Cipolletta, C., Boitani, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2015). The influence of seasonal frugivory on nutrient and energy intake in wild western gorillas. PLoS One,10(7): e0129254.
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Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2015). Dispersal patterns of females in the genus Gorilla. In T. Furuichi, J. Yamagiwa, & F. Aureli (Eds.), Dispersing primate females: Life history and social strategies in male-philopatric species (pp. 75-104). Tokyo: Springer.
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Robbins, M. M. (2015). Gorillas. In P. Whelehan, & A. Bolin (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality (pp. 484-486). Chichester: Wiley.
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van Andel, A. C., Wich, S. A., Boesch, C., Koh, L. P., Robbins, M. M., Kelly, J., & Kühl, H. S. (2015). Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle. American Journal of Primatology,77(10), 1122-1134.
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Vigilant, L., Roy, J., Bradley, B. J., Stoneking, C. J., Robbins, M. M., & Stoinski, T. S. (2015). Reproductive competition and inbreeding avoidance in a primate species with habitual female dispersal. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,69(7), 1163-1172.
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Wright, E., Grueter, C. C., Seiler, N., Abavandimwe, D., Stoinski, T. S., Ortmann, S., & Robbins, M. M. (2015). Energetic responses to variation in food availability in the two mountain gorilla populations (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Physical Anthropology,158(3), 487-500.
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Wright, E., Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2015). Feeding competition in female Bwindi mountain gorillas. Gorilla Journal,51, 13-14. Retrieved from http://www.berggorilla.org/en/journal/issues/journal-no-51/.
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2014

Arandjelovic, M., Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2014). Genetic inference of group dynamics and female kin structure in a western lowland gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Primate Biology,1(1), 29-38.
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Grüter, C. C., Deschner, T., Behringer, V., Fawcett, K., & Robbins, M. M. (2014). Socioecological correlates of energy balance using urinary C-peptide measurements in wild female mountain gorillas. Physiology & Behavior,127, 13-19.
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Habumuremyi, S., Robbins, M. M., Fawcett, K. A., & Deschner, T. (2014). Monitoring ovarian cycle activity via progestagens in urine and feces of female mountain gorillas: A comparison of EIA and LC-MS measurements. American Journal of Primatology,76(2), 180-191.
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Hedwig, D., Hammerschmidt, K., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2014). Acoustic structure and variation in mountain and western gorilla close calls: a syntactic approach. Behaviour,151(8), 1091-1120.
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Imong, I. S., Robbins, M. M., Mundry, R., Bergl, R., & Kühl, H. S. (2014). Distinguishing ecological constraints from human activity in species range fragmentation: The case of Cross River gorillas. Animal Conservation,17(4), 323-331.
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Imong, I. S., Robbins, M. M., Mundry, R., Bergl, R., & Kühl, H. S. (2014). Informing conservation management about structural versus functional connectivity: A case-study of Cross River gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,76(10), 978-988.
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Oelze, V. M., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Richards, M. P., & Boesch, C. (2014). Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution,66(1), 95-106.
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Robbins, A. M., Gray, M., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2014). Variance in the reproductive success of dominant male mountain gorillas. Primates,55(4), 489-499.
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Robbins, M. M. (2014). Gorillas across time and space. In K. B. Strier (Ed.), Primate Ethnographies (pp. 163-174). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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Roy, J., Arandjelovic, M., Bradley, B. J., Guschanski, K., Stephens, C. R., Bucknell, D., Cirhuza, H., Kusamba, C., Kyungu, J. C., Smith, V., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2014). Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations. Biology Letters,10(11): 20140811.
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Roy, J., Gray, M., Stoinski, T., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2014). Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas. BMC Ecology,14: 21.
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Roy, J., Vigilant, L., Gray, M., Wright, E., Kato, R., Kabano, P., Basabose, A., Tibenda, E., Kühl, H. S., & Robbins, M. M. (2014). Challenges in the use of genetic mark-recapture to estimate the population size of Bwindi mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Biological Conservation,180, 249-261.
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Wright, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2014). Proximate mechanisms of contest competition among female Bwindi mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,68(11), 1785-1797.
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Wright, E., Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2014). Dominance rank differences in the energy intake and expenditure of female Bwindi mountain gorillas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,68(6), 957-970.
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2013

Gray, M., Roy, J., Vigilant, L., Fawcett, K., Basabose, A., Cranfield, M., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2013). Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological Conversation,158, 230-238.
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Grueter, C., Ndamiyabo, F., Plumtre, A. J., Abavandimwe, D., Mundry, R., Fawcett, K. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2013). Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Primatology,75(3), 267-280.
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Grüter, C. C., Robbins, M. M., Ndagijimana, F., & Stoinski, T. S. (2013). Possible tool use in a mountain gorilla. Behavioural Processes,100, 160-162.
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Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Rabanal, L. I., Makaga, L., & Kühl, H. S. (2013). Effective sociodemographic population assessment of elusive species in ecology and conservation management. Ecology and Evolution,3(9), 2903-2916.
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Polansky, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2013). Generalized additive mixed models for disentangling long-term trends, local anomalies, and seasonality in fruit tree phenology. Ecology and Evolution,3(9), 3141-3151.
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Robbins, A. M., Gray, M., Basabose, A., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2013). Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas. PLoS One,8(11): e78256.
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Scuda, N., Madinda, N. F., Akoua-Koffi, C., Adjogoua, E. V., Wevers, D., Hofmann, J., Cameron, K. N., Leendertz, S. A. J., Couacy-Hymann, E., Robbins, M., Boesch, C., Jarvis, M. A., Moens, U., Mugisha, L., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Leendertz, F. H., & Ehlers, B. (2013). Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: Genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population. PLoS Pathogens,9(6): e1003429.
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2012

Arandjelovic, M., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., Head, J., Hohmann, G., Junker, J., Kouakou, C. Y., Kuehl, H., Leendertz, F., Leinert, V., Moebius, Y., Murai, M., Oelze, V., Rabanal, L., Robbins, M., Vergnes, V., & Wagner, O. J. J.(2012).Pan African Programme. The cultured chimpanzee. Guidelines for research and data collection. Max Planck Gesellschaft. Wild Chimpanzee Foundation.
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Breuer, T., Robbins, A. M., Boesch, C., & Robbins, M. M. (2012). Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution,62(4), 466-472.
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Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Mundry, R., Makaga, L., & Boesch, C. (2012). Remote video-camera traps measure habitat use and competitive exclusion among sympatric chimpanzee, gorilla and elephant in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology,28(6), 571-583.
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Langergraber, K., Pruefer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J. C., Muller, M. N., Robbins, M. M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T. S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R., Wrangham, R. W., Zuberbühler, K., Pääbo, S., & Vigilant, L. (2012). Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,109(39), 15716-15721.
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2011

Arandjelovic, M., Head, J., Rabanal, L. I., Schubert, G., Mettke, E., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2011). Non-Invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees. PLoS ONE,6(3): e14761.
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Head, J. S., Boesch, C., Makaga, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2011). Sympatric chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Loango National Park, Gabon: Dietary composition, seasonality, and intersite comparisons. International Journal of Primatology,32(3), 755-775.
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Kasangaki, A., Bitariho, R., Shaw, P., Robbins, M. M., & McNeilage, A. (2011). Long-term ecological and socio-economic changes in and around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. In A. J. Plumptre (Ed.), The Ecological Impact of Long-Term Changes in Africa's Rift Valley. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publ.
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Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T., Fawcett, K., & Robbins, M. M. (2011). Lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,146(4), 582-593.
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Robbins, M. M. (2011). Among silverbacks. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 143-154). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
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Robbins, M. M. (2011). Discovering apes. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 17-29). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
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Robbins, M. M. (2011). Introduction: who, what, where, and why. In M. M. Robbins (Ed.), Among African apes: stories and photos from the field (pp. 1-16). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
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Robbins, M. M., Gray, M., Fawcett, K. A., Nutter, F. B., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., Basabose, A., Stoinski, T. S., Cranfield, M. R., Byamukama, J., Spelman, L. H., & Robbins, A. M. (2011). Extreme conservation leads to recovery of the Virunga Mountain gorillas. PLoS One,6(6): e19788.
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Wevers, D., Metzger, S., Babweteera, F., Bieberbach, M., Boesch, C., Cameron, K., Couacy-Hymann, E., Cranfield, M., Gray, M., Harris, L. A., Head, J., Jeffery, K., Knauf, S., Lankester, F., Leendertz, S. A. J., Lonsdorf, E., Mugisha, L., Nitsche, A., Reed, P., Robbins, M., Travis, D. A., Zommers, Z., Leendertz, F. H., & Ehlers, B. (2011). Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: A high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Virology,85(20), 10774-10784.
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2010

Arandjelovic, M., Head, J., Kuehl, H., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Maisels, F., & Vigilant, L. (2010). Effective non-invasive genetic monitoring of multiple wild western gorilla groups. Biological Conservation,143(7), 1780-1791.
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Breuer, T., Robbins, A. M., Olejniczak, C., Parnell, R. J., Stokes, E. J., & Robbins, M. M. (2010). Variance in the male reproductive success of western gorillas: Acquiring females is just the beginning. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,64(4), 515-528.
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Gray, M., McNeilage, A., Fawcett, K., Robbins, M. M., Ssebide, B., Mbula, D., & Uwingeli, P. (2010). Censusing the mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes: Complete sweep method versus monitoring. African Journal of Ecology,48(3), 588-599.
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Rabanal, L. I., Kuehl, H., Mundry, R., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2010). Oil prospecting and its impact on large rainforest mammals in Loango National Park, Gabon. Biological Conservation,143(4), 1017-1024.
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Robbins, M. M. (2010). Gorillas: Diversity in ecology and behavior. In Christina J. Campbell, Agustín Fuentes, Katherine C. MacKinnon, Melissa Panger, and Simon K. Bearder (Ed.), Primates in Perspective 2nd ed. (pp. 326-339). New York [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Pr.
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Robbins, M. M. (2010). Long-term field studies of primates: Considering the past, present, and future. Evolutionary Anthropology,19(3), 87-88.
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Wevers, D., Leendertz, F. H., Scuda, N., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Head, J., Ludwig, C., Kühn, J., & Ehlers, B. (2010). A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Virology Journal,7(303): 7:303, pp. 1-8.
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2009

Boesch, C., Head, J., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution,56(6), 560-569.
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Ganas, J., Nkurunungi, J. B., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). A preliminary study of the temporal and spatial biomass patterns of herbaceous vegetation consumed by mountain gorillas in an afromontane rain forest. Biotropica,41(1), 37-46.
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Ganas, J., Ortmann, S., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Food choices of the mountain gorilla in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: The influence of nutrients, phenolics and availability. Journal of Tropical Ecology,25(2), 123-134.
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Guschanski, K., Vigilant, L., McNeilage, A., Gray, M., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Biological Conservation,142(2), 290-300.
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Masi, S., Cipolletta, C., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory. American Journal of Primatology,71(2), 91-100.
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Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T. S., Fawcett, K. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Does dispersal cause reproductive delays in female mountain gorillas? Behaviour,146(4-5), 525-549.
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Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T. S., Fawcett, K. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Leave or conceive: Natal dispersal and philopatry of female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcano region. Animal Behaviour,77(4), 831-838.
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Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T. S., Fawcett, K. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Socioecological influences on the dispersal of female mountain gorillas—evidence of a second folivore paradox. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,63(4), 477-489.
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Robbins, M. M. (2009). Male aggression towards females in mountain gorillas: Courtship or coercion? In Martin N. Muller and Richard W. Wrangham (Ed.), Sexual coercion in primates and humans: an evolutionary perspective on male aggression against females (pp. 112-127). Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.
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Robbins, M. M., Gray, M., Kagoda, E., & Robbins, A. M. (2009). Population dynamics of the Bwindi mountain gorillas. Biological Conservation,142(12), 2886-2895.
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Sawyer, S. C., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). A novel food processing technique by a wild mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Folia Primatologica,80(2), 83-88.
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2008

Ganas, J., Ortmann, S., & Robbins, M. M. (2008). Food preferences of wild mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,70(10), 927-938.
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Guschanski, K., Caillaud, D., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2008). Females shape the genetic structure of a gorilla population. Current Biology,18(22), 1809-1814.
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Nsubuga, A. M., Robbins, M. M., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2008). Patterns of paternity and group fission in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,135(3), 263-274.
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Robbins, M. M. (2008). Feeding competition and agonistic relationships among Bwindi gorilla beringei. International Journal of Primatology,29(4), 999-1018.
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2007

Boesch, C., Head, J., Tagg, N., Arandjelovic, M., Vigilant, L., & Robbins, M. M. (2007). Fatal chimpanzee attack in Loango National Park, Gabon. International Journal of Primatology,28(5), 1025-1034.
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Breuer, T., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (2007). Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Physical Anthroplogy,134(3), 369-382.
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Cipolletta, C., Spagnoletti, N., Todd, A. F., Robbins, M. M., Cohen, H., & Pacyna, S. (2007). Termite feeding by gorilla gorilla gorilla at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology,28(2), 457-476.
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McNeilage, A., & Robbins, M. M. (2007). Primatology comes to Africa. African Journal of Ecology,45(1), 1-3.
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Robbins, A. M., Robbins, M. M., & Fawcett, K. A. (2007). Maternal investment of the Virunga mountain gorillas. Ethology,113(3), 235-245.
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Robbins, M. M. (2007). Book Review: Seasonality in Primates: Studies of Living and Extinct Human and Non-human Primates/ ed. by K. Diane, Brockman and Carel P. van Schaik. - Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005). - 604 S., ISBN 0-52-182069-3. Journal of Human Evolution,53(2), 224-225.
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Robbins, M. M. (2007). Gorillas: Diversity in ecology and behavior. In Christina J. Campbell, Agustín Fuentes, Katherine C. MacKinnon, Melissa Panger, and Simon K. Bearder (Ed.), Primates in Perspective (pp. 305-321). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Robbins, M. M., & Sawyer, S. C. (2007). Intergroup encounters in mountain gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Behaviour,144(12), 1497-1519.
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Robbins, M. M., Robbins, A. M., Gerald-Steklis, N., & Steklis, H. D. (2007). Socioecological influences on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,61(6), 919-931.
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2006

Grimm, V., Berger, U., Bastiansen, F., Eliassen, S., Ginot, V., Giske, J., Goss-Custard, J., Grand, T., Heinz, S. K., Use, G., Huth, A., Jepsen, J. U., Jørgensen, C., Mooij, W. M., Mueller, B., Peer, G., Piou, C., Railsback, S. F., Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2006). A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models. Ecological Modelling,198(1-2), 115-126.
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McNeilage, A., Robbins, M. M., Gray, M., Olupot, W., Babaasa, D., Bitariho, R., Kasangaki, A., Rainer, H., Asuma, S., Mugiri, G., & Baker, J. (2006). Census of the mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei population in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Oryx,40(4), 419-427.
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Robbins, A. M., Robbins, M. M., Gerald-Steklis, N., & Steklis, H. D. (2006). Age-related patterns of reproductive success among female mountain gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology,131(4), 511-521.
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Robbins, M. M. (2006). Diversity in ecology and behavior. In Christina J. Campbell; Augustin Fuentes; Katherine C. MacKinnon; Melissa Panger; Simon K. Bearder (Ed.), Primates in perspective (pp. 305-321). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
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Robbins, M. M., & Hohmann, G. (2006). Primate feeding ecology: An integrative approach. In G. Hohmann, M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Feeding Ecology in Apes and other Primates (pp. 1-13). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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Robbins, M. M., Nkurunungi, J. B., & McNeilage, A. (2006). Variability of the feeding ecology of Eastern gorillas. In Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe (Ed.), Feeding Ecology of Apes and other Primates (pp. 25-47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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2005

Bradley, B. J., Robbins, M. M., Williamson, E. A., Steklis, H. D., Gerald-Steklis, N., Eckhardt, N., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2005). Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,102(26), 9418-9423.
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Ferriss, S., Robbins, M. M., & Williamson, E. (2005). Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei). In J. Caldecott (Ed.), The World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation (pp. 129-152). Berkeley [u.a.]: Univ. of California Pr.
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Ganas, J., & Robbins, M. M. (2005). Ranging behavior of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: A test of the ecological constraints model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,58(3), 277-288.
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Robbins, A. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2005). Fitness consequences of dispersal decisions for male mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,58(3), 295-309.
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Robbins, M. M., Robbins, A. M., Gerald-Steklis, N., & Steklis, H. D. (2005). Long-term dominance relationships in female mountain gorillas: Strength, stability and determinants of rank. Behaviour,142, 779-809.
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2004

Ganas, J., & Robbins, M. M. (2004). Intrapopulation differences in ant eating in the mountain gorillas of Bwindi impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Primates,45, 275-278.
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Ganas, J., Robbins, M. M., Nkurunungi, J. B., Kaplin, B. A., & McNeilage, A. (2004). Dietary variability of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology,25(5), 1043-1072.
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Lukas, D., Bradley, B. J., Nsubuga, A. M., Robbins, M. M., & Vigilant, L. (2004). Major histocompatibility complex and microsatellite variation in two populations of wild gorillas. Molecular Ecology,13(11), 3389-3402.
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Downloads

Nkurunungi, J. B., Ganas, J., Robbins, M. M., & Stanford, C. B. (2004). A comparison of two mountain gorilla habitats in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology,42, 289-297.
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Nsubuga, A. M., Robbins, M. M., Roeder, A. D., Morin, P. A., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2004). Factors affecting the amount of genomic DNA extracted from ape faeces and the identification of an improved sample storage method. Molecular Ecology,13(7), 2089-2094.
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Robbins, M. M., & Robbins, A. M. (2004). Simulation of the population dynamics and social structure of the Virunga Mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,63(4), 201-223.
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Robbins, M. M., Bermejo, M., Cipolletta, C., Magliocca, F., Parnell, R. J., & Stokes, E. J. (2004). Social structure and life-history patterns in western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology,64, 145-159.
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2003

Kalpers, J., Williamson, E. A., Robbins, M. M., McNeilage, A., Nzamurambaho, A., Lola, N., & Mugiri, G. (2003). Gorillas in the crossfire: Population dynamics of the Virunga mountain gorillas over the past three decades. Oryx,37(3), 326-337.
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Robbins, M. M. (2003). Behavioral aspects of sexual selection in mountain gorillas. In Jones, Clara L. (Ed.), Sexual Selection & Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions (pp. 477-501). Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists.
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Robbins, M. M., & McNeilage, A. (2003). Home range and frugivory patterns of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology,24(3), 467-491.
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2001

Czekala, N. M., & Robbins, M. M. (2001). Assessment of reproduction and stress through hormone analysis in gorillas. In M. M. Robbins; P. Sicotte; K. J. Stewart (Ed.), Mountain Gorillas: Three Decades of Research at Karisoke (pp. 317-339). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Robbins, M. M. (2001). Variation in the social system of mountain gorillas: The male perspective. In M. M. Robbins; P. Sicotte; K. J. Stewart (Ed.), Mountain Gorillas: Three Decades of Research at Karisoke (pp. 29-58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Robbins, M. M., Sicotte, P., & Stewart, K. J. (2001). Mountain gorillas of the Virungas: A short history. In M. M. Robbins; P. Sicotte; K. J. Stewart (Ed.), Mountain Gorillas: Three Decades of Research at Karisoke (pp. 1-26). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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1999

Robbins, M. M. (1999). Male mating patterns in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups. Animal Behaviour,57(5), 1013-1020.
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1998

Field, D., Chemnick, L., Robbins, M. M., Garner, K., & Ryder, O. A. (1998). Paternity determination in captive lowland gorillas and orangutans and wild mountain gorillas by microsatellite analysis. Primates,39(2), 199-209.
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1997

Robbins, M. M., & Czekala, N. M. (1997). A preliminary investigation of urinary testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology,43(1), 51-64.
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1996

Robbins, M. M. (1996). Male-male interactions in heterosexual and all-male wild mountain gorilla groups. Ethology,102(7), 942-965.
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1995

Robbins, M. M. (1995). A demographic analysis of male life history and social structure of mountain gorillas. Behaviour,132(1), 21-47.
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Books

Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2013).Menschenaffen: Begegnung mit unseren nächsten Verwandten. Stuttgart: Hirzel.
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Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2011).Among African apes: Stories and photos from the field. Berkeley: Univ. of California Pr.
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Gray, M., McNeilage, A., Fawcett, K. A., Robbins, M. M., Ssebide, B., Mbula, D., & Uwingeli, P. (2006).Virunga Volcano Range mountain gorilla census: Joint organisers' report.?: UWA/ORTPN/ICCN.
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Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. M., & Boesch, C. (Eds.). (2006).Feeding ecology in apes and other primates. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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Robbins, M. M., Sicotte, P., & Stewart, K. J. (Eds.). (2001).Mountain gorillas: Three decades of research at Karisoke. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr.
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